Wednesday, July 31, 2019
I. Theory of Existentialism Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authoritites creating it for them. It emerged as a movement in twentieth-century literature and philosophy, though it had forerunners in earlier centuries. Existentialism generally postulates that the absence of a transcendent force (such as God) means that the individual is entirely free, and therefore, ultimately responsible. It is up to humans to create an ethos of personal responsibility outside any branded belief system. In existentialism views, personal articulation of being is the olny way to rise above humanity`s absurd condition of much suffering and inevitable death. Existentialism is a reaction against traditional philosophies, such as rationalism and empiricism, that seek to discover an ultimate order in metaphysical principles or in the structure of the observed world, and thereby seek to discover universal meaning. Existentialism originated with the nineteenth-century philosophers Soren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche. It became prevalent in Continental philosophy, and literary figures such as Fyodor Dostoevsky also contributed to the movement. In the 1940s and 1950s, French existentialism such as Jean-Paul Satre, Albert Camus, and Simone de Beauvoir, wrote scholarly and fictional works that popularized existential themes such as Ã¢â¬Å"dread, boredom, alienation, the absurd, freedom, commitment, and nothingness. Ã¢â¬ Walter Kaufmann describes existentialism as Ã¢â¬Å"The refusal to belong to any school of thought, the repudiation of the adequacy of any body of beliefs whatever, and especially of systems, and a marked dissatisfaction with traditional phylosophy as superficial, academic, and remote from life. Ã¢â¬ Existentialism tends to focus on the question of human existence Ã¢â¬â the feeling that there is no purpose, indeed nothing, at the core of existence. Finding a way to counter this nothingness, by embracing existence, is the fundamental theme of existentialism, and the root of the phylosophyÃ¢â¬â¢s name. In existentialism view, they asserts that a human finds oneself already in a world and prior context that the human cannot think away. In other words, the ultimate and unquestionable reality is not consciousness but existence. A central proposition of existentialism is that humans define their own meaning in life. Such a view might be phrased technically by philosophers as existence precedes essence, that is a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s existence conceptually precedes the essence or meaning that may be ascribed to the life. Satre, in Essays in Extentialism, further highlights this consciousness of being thrown into existence in the following fashion: Ã¢â¬Å"If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be. Ã¢â¬ Emphasizing action, freedom, and decision as fundamental, existentialist oppose themselves to rationalism and positivism. That is, they argue against definitions of human beings as primarily rational. Rather, existentialists look at where people find meaning. Existentialism asserts that people actually make decisions based on what has meaning to them rather that what is rational. A further type of existentialism is agnostic existentialists, who make no claim to know whether or not there is a Ã¢â¬Å"greater pictureÃ¢â¬ ; rather, they simply assert that the greatest truth is that which the individual chooses to act upon. II. What is Superhero A superhero Ã¢â¬â sometimes written as super hero Ã¢â¬â is a fictional character of extraordinary physical ability dedicated to acts in the sake of public interest. Since the debut of the prototypal superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes Ã¢â¬â ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas Ã¢â¬â have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine or super heroine. By most definitions, characters need not have actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, not, although sometimes terms such as costumed crimefighters are used to refer to those without such powers who have many other common traits of superheroes. The two-word version of the term is a trademark co-owned by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. There have been successful superheroes in other countries most of whom share the conventions of the American model. Examples include Cybersix from Argentina, Captain Canuck from Canada and the heroes of AK Comics from Egypt. For this Western area, I will take Batman as the representative. Unlike many superheroes, Batman has no superpowers and instead relies on his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, an athletic abilities. Batman is physically at the peak of human ability in dozens of areas, notably martial arts, acrobatics, strenght, and escape artistry. Rather than simply outfighting his opponents, Batman often uses cunning and planning to outwit them. BatmanÃ¢â¬â¢s costumes incorporates the imagery of a bat in order to frighten criminals. Japan is the only country that nears the US in output of superheroes. The earlier of these wore scarves either in addition to or as a substitute for capes and many wear helmets instead of masks. Moonlight Mask, Ultraman, Kamen Rider, Super Sentai (the basis for Power Rangers), Metal Heroes and Kikaider have become popular in Japanese tokusatsu live-action shows, and Science Ninja Team Gatchaman, Casshan, The Guyver, and Sailor Moon are staples of Japanese anime and manga. However, most Japanese superheroes are shorter-lived. While American entertainment companies update and reinvent superheroes, hoping to keep them popular for decades, Japanese companies retire and introduce superheroes more quickly, usually on an annual basis, in order to shorten merchandise lines. In addition, Japanese manga often targets female readers, unlike U. S. comics, and has created such varieties as Ã¢â¬Å"magical girlÃ¢â¬ (e. g. Cardcaptor Sakura) for this audience. For this Eastern area, I will take Naruto as the representative. Naruto whose full name is Uzumaki Naruto is a young boy who dreams of becoming the leader of his Hidden Village. It will be difficult though for Naruto, because when he was a baby an evil demon was placed inside him to stop its rampage. As Naruto grew the townspeople saw Naruto himself as the demon, even though he was merely its container. Naruto lives in a world populated by ninja villages. The ninja serve as the armies for the countries that inhabit the world. Most of the countries have their own Hidden Village, which serves to train and manage the ninja of the country. Also the ninja in the series are able to utilize jutsu techniques, which are the secrecy, body and illusion arts of the ninja. These allow the ninja to perform many amazing skills such as the manipulation of the surrounding elements. III. Batman and Naruto: Their Differences and Their Revelance In Existentialism The true feature of Batman as a common people is Bruce Wayne, a millionaire industrialist. He inherited a big corporation, Wayne Corporation, from his father. The ego Ã¢â¬ËBatmanÃ¢â¬â¢ was born because of two accident. The first was the murder of BruceÃ¢â¬â¢s parents. Bruce witnessed his parent killed in a gun-accident. A street-criminal shot them to death. The second was Bruce falling down into a cave in WayneÃ¢â¬â¢s manor. He fell into a dark and humid cave where a hundred of bats lived. Those two accidents led Bruce to learn about martial arts and gadget-operating skill in order to fight the crime in Gotham city. His fear of bat made him wear a bat-costume in doing his operation. Thus, Batman as a superhero who fight a crime has born. This is the very purpose why Batman wants to fight crime: a personal vendetta against criminals. Since Batman does not have any superpowers, he relies on his own scientific knowledge, detective skills, an athletic abilities. Also his wealth enables him to get much modern and sophisticated gadget in order to beat his nemesis. In other hand, Naruto, instead of his lack of intellectual ability in solving a problem, his friend still considers some of his actions brilliant. Naruto does all of his action by intuition, not by a precise step as a ninja should do. What makes Naruto a superhero is that he possesses massive abundant chakra energy inside his body. This chakra is originated from a Nine-Tailed Demon Fox that is sealed inside his body. Together with his friends and mentor, Naruto solve the problem and fight with the evil ninjas. They act in a group of 4 ,3 ninjas and a mentor. They perform a close combat by using martial arts and ninjutsu, and a long-range combat by using flying dagger or shuriken. Once they accomplished a mission, they report to the hokage, which is the leader of the village. Yet, the very important thing that makes they both become a superhero is that there exist some nemesis, villains, that must be eliminated. They both make some struggles to get rid of those system distracted. What differentiate them is the way they make these struggles. Batman eliminates crime in Gotham by his own rule. He does not obey the rules prevailed in that city. He intentionally takes action againts criminal without involving the authorities. It can be concluded that Batman makes his own system to fix the system. However, Batman Ã¢â¬â intentionally or not Ã¢â¬â does not kill his enemy. He just sents those criminals to the authorities, to be prisoned or not. BatmanÃ¢â¬â¢s worst nemesis, The Joker, is still alive until now. Although they often have some Ã¢â¬ËfightÃ¢â¬â¢, but neither Batman or The Joker is condemned to death. While NarutoÃ¢â¬â¢s job is to keep the system in his village to be kept save. He does not violate the system prevailed in his village, instead he is forced to obey that system. His acts are being ruled by Hokage, the highest authority in the village. He is a kind of Ã¢â¬ËpaidÃ¢â¬â¢ superhero that acts upon a mission that is given by that Hokage. Once they accomplished that mission, they have report to that Hokage. Here, Naruto biggest enemy, Kabuto, is remain alive until now. What makes this difference? It is because the different culture that affect the people in West and East. Why Batman have a nerve to make his own system to fix the main system prevailed in his city is due to the Western way of thinking. Western culture tends to emphasize critical thinking. They are learned to break the rules if they think that there are some errors in those rules. Their new ideas are being welcomed, even they are supported to make new inventions. While Eastern country tend to Ã¢â¬Ëclose their eyesÃ¢â¬â¢. They have to accept what the older people says. They are not being couraged to make some critics toward the culture. They tend to give high respect (sometimes not in a proper measure) toward conventional ideas. Here it implies in the way Batman and Naruto makes their struggle to fight crimes. Then another point where existentialism takes place also emmerges. Why those superheroes do not kill their enemies? It is because they Ã¢â¬ËneedÃ¢â¬â¢ their nemesis so that they can be a superheroes still. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s we go back to the question of what makes those superheroes superhero? What do they pursue? They want to eliminate crimes. Then we come to the question of what causes this crime? Criminals. So superheroes exist because there are some criminals. If there are no criminals, so there are no superheroes. Like what Satre has said, Ã¢â¬Å"If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefineable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be. Ã¢â¬ Thus, superhero is nothing if there is no criminal to make him defineable. This is the meaning of existence preceding essence. I would like to use the term that coined by Heidegger, Ã¢â¬Å"thrownessÃ¢â¬ , that is human beings are Ã¢â¬Å"thrownÃ¢â¬ into existence without having chosen it. Whether superhero or the enemy do not have the power to choose what they want to be. First they just exist in the world, then they just do the thing that they believe as a greatest truth. This is that greatest truth that they choose to act upon to find the essences of their existencies. Noviana Indah Tri Wahyuni a paper for Comparative Studies Superhero Theme.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The area of the pre-school room that I have chosen to critically evaluate is the dress up area. Our pre-school consists of 20 children aged 3-4 years old spread over two sessions, and comprises both boys and girls. In our pre-school we have two polish children, one boy and one girl, who speak both English and Polish, one Chinese girl and one Zimbabwean boy. The rest of the children are Irish. Our pre-school room is one large room in a general childcare facility, located at the rear of the building adjacent to the after-school room, and opens out onto the outdoor play area. The development of a learning environment which supports childrenÃ¢â¬Ës learning, socialization, interests and needs, is one of the foundation stones to quality early years curriculum and service. According to Aistear, taking time to develop a good indoor and outdoor learning environment will assist in the development of your curriculum and provide a welcoming and supportive learning atmosphere for the children. There are two roles for the adult in preparing this environment: organising it and resourcing it. In a pre-school room the space should be divided into interest areas i. e.Ã child-sized areas rather than in a single large group space. The supervisor should create well-defined areas of interest that encourage a variety of types of play and helps children see and experience the choices on offer. As you enter our room, the room the sinks and wash up area are to the left, as are the toilets. To the right is the table top area and arts & crafts corner. To the rear of the room, the book and reading corner is on the left hand side adjacent to the construction area, the dress up stand is along the back wall, and the home corner is a separate area on the right hand side. Our building is relatively new and the room is bright and airy, with most of the toys and equipment in a good state of repair. There is no obviously old or shabby area that needs attention. Primary Research In deciding which area of the room needed improvement, I needed to conduct some primary research. The areas of assessment and planning have become increasingly important in childcare. In order to support childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s learning and development, providers must support each individual child by providing appropriate opportunities, experiences, activities, interactions and materials within the daily service. Therefore, I decided to carry out an observation on the children playing, and an informal interview with the children. Observation and assessment processes can be used to identify the effectiveness of the setting, specific areas of the setting, specific activities and the practitioner. Through observing the children and/or the learning environment we can revise plans and, perhaps, changes to the environment, to improve provision. In carrying out my research I: Ã¢â¬ ¢ observed the children when they were playing using a trail record observation sheet to determine the most and least popular areas of interest. Ã¢â¬ ¢ observed how the space and organisation of the environment was supporting or hindering play Ã¢â¬ ¢ interpreted what I saw and heard in the play Ã¢â¬ ¢ used the assessment information gathered in planning for improving the play areas. The children were invited to participate and give their opinions on the room during the informal interview with the group. Indeed consulting with the children in relation to the development of the space and materials can be empowering for the children and give them a sense of ownership. The results of my research indicated to me that the book area and dress up areas were the least utilised areas of the room during free play time. The book area didnÃ¢â¬â¢t overly concern me, as we incorporate reading and storytelling into our curriculum during the day, but I was concerned to see the lack of interest in the dress up area. Home Corner/ Dress Up Area The dress up area should be a very active area in the preschool room where children engage in a lot of role play. When children put on dress-up clothes and pretend to be grown up, they are discovering more than how it feels to dress as an adult. Ã¢â¬Å"Pretend playÃ¢â¬ helps children to understand how other people think and feel. It gives children the opportunity to discover new experiences or new places they can see only in their imagination. This is called symbolic thinking and is indicative of Piagets pre-operational stage of development. Symbolic thinking is an important, complex skill necessary for many tasks in life, including language and communication, social skills, and even algebra and geometry. When we watch children playing in dress-up clothes, we notice they often use problem-solving skills they see adults use. Negotiation and shared responsibility become easier when children are pretending to be adults. They are gaining a sense of adult rules and expectations. Sometimes children may find the dress-up area a place to confront fears and work through stressful situations. By pretending to be a doctor or a monster, a child gains a sense of power over the unknown, or by acting out a traumatic event and talking about it, it becomes less scary to the child. Furthermore, engaging in dress up play can help further develop practical skills, as little fingers are learning to tie, zip, button and snap. Providing dress up supplies and dress up time allows young children to practice these skills without the pressures of time constraints. Preschoolers will be building fine motor skills and improving self-help while using their imaginations, enjoying creative play and having fun. Dress up play also encourages language skills as kids discuss amongst themselves what they are wearing, the colours and textures of the clothes, and the roles they are playing. Proposal of Recommendations From my observations, I saw that the children often bypassed the dress up stand on their way to other areas, or at times even forgot that it was there. When the children did stop and have a look, they usually pulled out one costume, put it on and ran off to play elsewhere. Our dress up area consists of a child sized clothes rail with 4 costumes 1 x fairy, 1 x princess, 1 x bob the builder, 1 x fireman, and two baskets with some doctor/nurse paraphernalia, a few scarves, a straw hat, a couple ofÃ Halloween masks, fairy wings, a crown and a plastic gun. It became obvious to me from my observation and interview with the children that our assortment of dress up clothes was completely inadequate, both in quantity and in variety. Our costumes were limited to a number of fairytale or cartoon characters, with no reference to ordinary everyday practical contexts. I also realized that we were sadly lacking in accessories, to enable the children to adapt and change the outfits on a day to day basis, thus maintaining interest and motivation. Furthermore, the location and display of the dress up clothes needed attention, to attract the children to this very important play area. Rather than the dress up area existing as a separate area, it should be incorporated into another relevant interest area such as the Home Corner, to help extend play between areas. I picked up on this concept from observing the children, when one child dressed up as a fireman and then went to the Home Corner to Ã¢â¬Å"put out a fireÃ¢â¬ in the kitchen. Of course it comes naturally to children when engaging in symbolic or pretend play to link areas such as dress up and home corner. In conducting some reading and research into how to effectively organize a dress up area, I learned that the area should be attractive and inviting to children, yet well organised in order for children to discover and explore various costumes, accessories and items of clothing. There also needed to be enough space to allow groups of children to play in the area at the same time. Materials and equipment should be kept visible to the children and easily reached. The supervisor should make sure that the shelving is low level and that dress up equipment is within easy reach of the children. Choosing see-through containers allows the children to see what is inside without taking it from the shelf, or using labels on the outside of the boxes would help the children greatly in choosing items and also at tidy up time, which is an important part of the High/Scope philosophy. In addition to these criticisms of our dress up area, I realised that we have not made any effort to bring cultural or ethnic diversity to our selection. In developing the home corner and dress up area, you should take the profile of the children attending your service into account. Our pre-school has 4 children of different ethnic backgrounds attending, and we as room leaders should endeavour to include their ethnic clothes, music, dance, food and customs into the room, as well as those of other ethnic groups also. Implementation of Recommendations I had an informal meeting with my pre-school colleagues and the centre manager to outline my observations, and proposal of recommendations for improving the dress up area. From this meeting we came up with the following plan of action: |Improvement Area |Action Required |Delegated to |Comments | |Location of dress up area|To be moved to, and incorporated into |Myself & |The layout will be changed one afternoon| | |the home corner |colleague |after playschool session | |Display |Additional rail needed |My colleague |My colleague was to purchase items after| | |Two coat racks to be fitted on wall | |funds made available by manager, and | | |Baskets to be swopped for clear storage| |arrange for assembly with caretaker | | |boxes | | | | |Two additional boxes req. | | | | |Full length mirror req. | | | |Variety |Additional costumes req. |My colleague |Funds to be made available by manager | | |Additional everyday clothing items req. |Myself |for purchase of costumes. Other items to| | |Ethnic clothing req. |Myself |be sourced by myself via request for | | |Variety of accessories req. |Myself |parental contributions and charity | | | | |shops/ jumble sales | |Curriculum |Dress up time to be strategically |Myself & |We will do this through drama, music and| | |incorporated into curriculum |colleague |dance activity. | Therefore to follow through on our plan of action, our centre manager made Ã¢â ¬100 available for the purchase of necessary items and additional costumes. My colleague went to Home base and purchased the coat racks, child clothes hangars, storage boxes and mirror, and then purchased a child sized clothes rail in SmythÃ¢â¬â¢s as well as some new additional dress up items. These items included a policemanÃ¢â¬â¢s costume, nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s costumes and some additional props. Dress up clothes should ideally comprise a wide variety of clothes which reflect the occupations of family members, local customs and people in the community, and should not be limited to superheroes or stereotyped dress up clothes. We re-arranged the home corner incorporating the dress up area on a Thursday afternoon, and my colleague had the caretaker fit the coat racks on the wall beside the clothes rails and the mirror. I sent home a letter with the children requesting donations for our dress up corner including a variety of accessories, and I also included the request in our pre-school newsletter. I also asked all the staff in the childcare facility for same. I made sure to specify that all donations should be clean, in a good state of repair and non hazardous for children. I included a list of suggested items which would be greatly appreciated. The response was overwhelming and we took in approximately 5 black refuse sacks of items for use in the area. I went through all the items and took out what I felt was appropriate. These items were washed and sanitized, and double checked by my colleague and centre manager for any safety hazards. I took the remainder of the dress up items given to us, and donated them to our nearest Barnardos charity shop on behalf of the pre-school. This list of items I requested was as follows: |Phones |Old Hair Dryers Ã¢â¬â Cords Removed |Sunglasses | |Small suitcases |Hats |Large fabric pieces | |Purses & Wallets |Aprons |Belts | |Baby items such as bottles, dodies, babygroÃ¢â¬â¢s, |Ties |Feather boas | |blankets etc. | | | |Empty toiletries i. e. shampoo bottles, facecream jars|Scarves |Jackets or shirts with buttons, zippers and | |etc. |Capes & Shawls |snaps | |Sponge Curlers |Tool belts |Crowns | |Handbags |Uniform items |Shoes with laces | |Small dresses |Football kit |Wands | |Leg warmers |Gloves | | We managed to procure most of the items requested via donations, and the families of the foreign national children very kindly donated some items of clothing and accessories from their cultures. For example the mother of the Chinese girl very kindly gave us a piece of Chinese silk fabric and a Chinese fan, whilst the Zimbabwean family gave us an ethnically printed tunic and a small turban style printed hat. We carefully displayed all our dress up items so as to make it interesting for the children to try different combinations, and make it easy for them to find things. Dress up clothes were put on hangars on the rails, hats and belts and aprons etc. were hung on the coat racks, whilst scarves and other accessories were stored in clearly labeled storage boxes and baskets at the base of the rails. A special basket was filled with props such as wands, microscopes, toy swords and other such items to bring fantasy to life. One very important new addition to the dress up area was a full length mirror, which was fitted to the wall beside the rails. This is very important in maintaining interest in the dress up area, and helps the children to observe and assess their choices. Furthermore, allowing kids to self-verify the results of their work is very Montessori. The overall result is that we now have a first class area which the children love. The time spent in the dress up area and home corner area in general has increased hugely, and the children have great fun trying different combinations of costumes. [pic] [pic] Bibliography Harding, Jackie Meldon Smith, Liz Ã¢â¬Å"How To Make Observations & AssessmentsÃ¢â¬ 2nd Edition Hodder & Stoughton UK Hayes, Noirin Ã¢â¬Å"Early Childhood An Introductory TextÃ¢â¬ 1999 Gill & MacMillan Dublin Madigan, Imelda Ã¢â¬Å"Defining, Assessing and Supporting Quality in Early Childhood Care and Education: The High/Scope Ireland Model http://www. cecde. ie/english/pdf/Questions%20of%20Quality/Madigan. pdf Miller, Patricia H Ã¢â¬Å"Theories of Developmental PsychologyÃ¢â¬ 2002 Worth Publishers US. Sylva, Kathy Lunt, Ingrid Ã¢â¬Å"Child Development: A First CourseÃ¢â¬ 1982 Blackwell Publishing UK Aistear Ã¢â¬â National Council for Curriculum and Assessment www. ncca. ie www. education. com http://www. ehow. com/how_10055611_set-up-fancy-preschool-classroom. html#ixzz29Hs4JKT9 http://www. kildarechildcare. ie/wp-content/uploads/Guide-to-Play-The-Learning-Environment. pdf http://education. scholastic. co. uk/resources/144269 http://www. sagepub. com/upm-data/9656_022816Ch5. pdf
INNOVATION REPORT ON DABUR CHYAWANPRASH GROUP MEMBERS LAVANIA SAJEED KHAN MUGWANEZA ELYSEE CONTENTS OExecutive summary OIntroduction OInnovation: Ã §Innovation model Ã §Dabur as an innovative product Ã §Market pull OProduct features OConclusion OReference EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Dabur India Limited is the primary market influential in FMCG products. Many initiatives were taken by the company which includes reduction in price, reducing the impact on environment, introduction of a new product and improvement of quality which is making them a leader in the market. Dabur has positioned its products in the Ã¢â¬Ënatural healthÃ¢â¬â¢ category. To meet the fitness and individual grooming wishes of their customers with secure, effective and ordinary solutions, Dabur India Ltd has synthesized a profound information of Ayurveda and herbs with modern science. Dabur India Limited is the 4th largest FMCG Company in India with revenues of Rs. 4110 crores and is ranked among the top 50 OTC(Over-the-Counter) Companies in the world. We see the diversification and expansion in their product segments under various brand names. It is trusted worldwide and is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s foremost Natural Health Care and Ayurvedic Company. Dabur has been in the front position by establishing an alternate way of living by going beyond national boundaries and hence they are marketing their products in many countries outside India. Combining luxury, nutrition and wellness, the Ã¢â¬Å"nutraceutical marketÃ¢â¬ is growing at a faster pace. Chyawanprash is made by using various herbs and is one of the products of Dabur India Ltd which is in great demand in the market. Herbal supplements were gaining popularity as preventive supplements. Thus, the concept of preventive care coupled with the rising use of herbals was a major reason for the relatively rapid growth of herbal medicines over allopathic drugs. Another major segment where herbal products outperformed allopathic drugs was in the segment of Ã¢â¬Ëlifestyle disordersÃ¢â¬â¢. The increase in lifestyle disorders like diabetes,joint pain,stress caused individuals to consider herbal medicines, as these diseases were lifetime problems and using herbals in conjunction with allopathic products would reduce the allopathic dosage and thereby reduce the incidence of side effects. A shift from prescribed medication to self-medication was a significant shift. As prescription products proved to be expensive, consumers started buying OTC products. Shlomo Maital, D. V. R. Seshadri,2007 Many products including Dabur Chyawanprash started appearing in OTC form,hence these products benefitted. Hence the productÃ¢â¬â¢s innovation is in using herbal supplements and dominating the market segment over other allopathic medicines. It has identified its market segments by implementing the market pull strategy and thereby produces the products according to the changing needs and preferences of the consumers. Example: Chyawanprash which is for adults and Chyawanprash Junior which is for children. Chyawanprash Junior has various nutrients required for growing children and is present in different flavours to attract that segment of the society. It typically uses product innovation where the company comes up with innovative value added features like being sugar free to its existing product category to increase the demand and therefore to occupy the Number 1 position in the market. INTRODUCTION: Driven by a vision to bring Ayurveda to society in a contemporary form, Dr. Burman founded the Dabur India Limited in 1884 by targeting to a large number of people who didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to proper cure; hence he came up with the idea of Ayurvedic medicines to treat people in a natural way. His rigorous hardwork made the company grow from a small Ayurvedic pharmacy, to a well-established company which is a global leader in the market. Dabur India Ltd has effectively changed its position from being a small business to an efficiently managed venture. Their continuous innovation is the secret to their success and Dabur India Ltd retains the focus on quality and has an ISO 9002 certification. It has three major strategic business units (SBUÃ¢â¬â¢s) which includes Consumer care division, Health care division and International business division. VARIOUS PRODUCT INNOVATIONS OF DABUR: Launched Chyawanprash in tin pack-The ancient curative was in a packaged form and it dominated the market by being the wide seller with a huge market share. Entered Oral Care segment- Introduced a herbal toothpowder which was called Lal Dant Manjan. It was well-packed and was made available to the masses at affordable prices. Launched Hajmola tablet- Used to control indigestion and became popular world wide and thereby came up with Hajmola tablets which are of different flavours.. Became successful by coming up with Real Fruit Juice- Real Fruit Juice was very much successful throughout India and hence accounted for majority of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s share. First-ever online shopping portal Ã¢â¬â First-ever online shopping portal www. daburuveda. com[->0] came into existence. Nutrigo-A new range of health supplements. WHY CHYAWANPRASH? -It is an authentic ayurvedic product,hence they do not make use of any chemicals. -No side effects. -Superior in quality. -Improves immune power and stamina. -Has a huge market share. INNOVATION The practical refinement and development of an original invention into a usable technique or product; or a process in which creativity is applied to every facet of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s value chain, from beginning to end, to develop new and better ways of creating value for customers. Shlomo Maital and D. V. R. Seshadri. Chyawanprash is an example of Product Innovation: The development of new and improved product is called product innovation, so it is definitely a product innovation because it came up with new products which are first of its kind in the market with better product attributes. DABUR AS AN INNOVATIVE PRODUCT By expanding their presence through smart innovations, managing costs efficiently and getting consumer insig hts, the company takes into consideration these opportunities very seriously to stay ahead in the market. Chyawanprash is a very good example of product innovation because the original flavor of the product was the first of its kind and shook the existing market with its innovative idea and superior quality. Ã¢â¬Å"Innovation is becoming increasingly important in attaining and maintaining competitive advantageÃ¢â¬ . ShlomoMaital,D. V. R. Seshadri After it established a position for itself in the market, they came up with two different flavors like Mango and Orange. Chyawanprash targeted for children were known as Ã¢â¬ËChyawanprash JuniorÃ¢â¬â¢ with yummy chocolate flavours that children would like and has all the nutrients that a growing child may require apart from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s normal diet. Another product which was launched in the market was called Chyawanprash sugar free. As Dabur Ltd came up with new innovations, it was able to cater to the needs of various segments of the society and age group in terms of product attributes, affordable price and variety in flavours. MARKET PULL : It is a strategy where the needs of the consumers are satisfied and one of the main motive of this strategy is to make profits. Since majority of the people these days are prone to various diseases due to unhealthy eating habits, the company adopted various techniques for manufacturing the product. Chyawanprash is sometimes given as a prescribed medicine by Doctors which boosts the energy levels and strengthens the immune system of the body. Hence it uses the market pull approach where it identifies the need in the market and manufactures its products accordingly. Understanding that a majority of the people have become health-conscious, age-old traditional practices are blended with science in making the product, thereby ensuring that there are no side-effects. Research was done and it was found that children are not really health-conscious and hence their main target segment was people above 30years of age. The R&D found out that small kids did not eat Chyawanprash until and unless they were given by force by their parents, hence they came up with fruit-flavoured Chyawanprash exclusively for children which were first of its kind in the market. INNOVATION MODEL ADOPTED BY DABUR CHYAWANPRASH: SIMULTANEOUS COUPLING MODEL Continuous innovation can be attributed to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. After Chyawanprash became the leader in the market, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s continuous R&D activities have helped in identifying the changing preferences and tastes of the consumers based on the demographic details of the consumer. Research was done and it was found that people belonging to the age group 13-30 were not really health-conscious and hence they strategically divided their target segments into two groups and manufactured products to suit the needs of both these segments. 1. Dabur Chyawanprash Junior for children was made of various yummy flavors like Chocolate,Orange and Mango. 2. Dabur Chyawanprash for people above 30. It is very good for health as it contains anti-oxidants and hence it is a health supplement for people belonging to various age groups. GROWTH OF THE COMPANY IN OTHER COUNTRIES: Because of the brand loyalty that has been built over a long period of time, the company has crossed the Indian boundaries and has established a foot-hold in places outside India. DaburÃ¢â¬â¢s overseas product portfolio is specially made to suit the needs and aspirations of the consumers in the international markets spreading through the Middle East, North Africa, West Africa, Europe and South Asia. Dabur has a number of manufacturing facilities in International business as well. The company has its manufacturing facilities spread across the Asia & Africa with 8 being in India and 5 outside India. The company has a world-wide recognition. Dabur is on the verge of becoming a global market leader. PRODUCT FEATURES: Ã ·Made by using the age old approach of Ayurveda. Ã ·Healthy and prescribed by Doctors. Ã ·Available in different flavours. Ã ·Protects from day to day ailments like cough and cold to Ã¢â¬Ëlifestyle disordersÃ¢â¬â¢. It is very good for health and hence recommended to all age groups because it contains anti-oxidants which helps to fight against diseases. CONCLUSION: There is considerable increase in the sales of the company which means there is greater demand for the products in the market. Dabur has come up with various innovative products under various brand names for different product categories like food products, Health care products etc. Dabur Chyawanprash contributes for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s majority of the market share. Dabur with its various product features is in the fore-front and is able to keep customers loyal to their brand. Its vision of being in the forefront in the healthcare sector by providing remedies and care from Ã¢â¬Ëhead to heelÃ¢â¬â¢ is now becoming a reality. Since the costs are affordable, people belonging to the lower strata of the society have started consuming Chyawanprash because of its added advantage. REFERENCES: http://www. dabur. com/About%20Dabur www. thehindubusinessline. in[->1] http://www. dabur. com/en/Investors1/Annual_reports/2010-11/Dabur-Annual-Report-2010-11. pdf http://www. dabur. com/Chyawan%20Junior [->0] Ã¢â¬â http://www. daburuveda. com [->1] Ã¢â¬â http://www. thehindubusinessline. in
Monday, July 29, 2019
Sociology in MMORPGs - Essay Example In this game players can create characters with different attributes, skills, and characteristics. They venture this world of theirs fighting creatures and gaining experience to achieve higher levels, obtain better abilities, and fight even harder monsters. True, it may sound easy, but people sit and play this game for many hours at a time. A large percentage of people who play EverQuest have admitted to playing for 10 hours straight, but you must remember that in MMORPG's people must put a large amount of time into it, otherwise people generally will get bored of the game. If people do not succeed and are always doing badly in the game you would think there would be no reason for them to play. People get addicted to these games very easily. There are plenty of great people to talk too, even though there are probably twice as many people you will not get along with. A lot of people lose sleep due to playing these games for and excessive amount of time. There are also people who have tried to quit these games, but have failed. Even though they just started to play one time, they had to continue after that. Do you think that these people just think they are addicted to the game though Some people say that they have gone through withdrawals trying to quit playing some of these games. One man even stretches to say "I get stressed when I have to go 24 hrs without logging on for a fix, and I wasn't able to quit when I tried. If that's not an addiction, I don't know what is." A game, an object, cannot be physically addicting. It is not a substance that alters a person's organs inside their bodies. Physical addictions are gone after detoxification, which is not the case in MMORPG's. These types of games are considered psychologically addicting. People sit down for hours playing these games, and they have so much fun they keep saying I just want to come back and play more. It can shortly begin to start running your life. A female and her boyfriend lived in an apartment in California living off of money they earned on e-bay, and all they did was sit and play EverQuest. The only reason they left the house was to go grocery shopping for food. After they lost their apartment everything started to crumble for her. The couple started to fight and they ended up braking up and moving back to their parent's houses. She tried to start socializing with people again after this, but she had hard times conforming back to society. When she was around more then one person at a time she got scared and anxious. Some people get addicted to Massive Multi Online Role Playing Games due to the self-esteem boost they get from being part of a group. They can actually achieve something that seems like a great thing, such as slaying a ferocious dragon, when all there doing is typing and clicking the mouse. A survey done on this very topic indicates that the more time spent playing the game the higher the persons self esteem was. Another part to this is a person with a low self-image. A person with a low self-image can go onto these games and, no matter what, have a character that looks amazing. They can act without fear of being ridiculed by complete strangers, and of consequences of their actions. Some people just have very stressful lives and need a way to escape reality. They sit and play games while the real life problems
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Political Ideology and MNEs - Essay Example In the era of globalization, MNEs act as investors to local economies, either inducing or reducing capital based on perceived political conditions. For example, if an MNE perceives the political ideology of a local government to be hostile to business interests, it can simply pull out of the country and invest that capital at a more favourable country. Authors Daniels et al touch upon this important facet to business practice in their book. Just as governing political ideology have a say in MNE decision making, the converse is also true. In this way, MNEs as a collective force hold a veto power over the decisions of governments. By collectively threatening to withdraw capital, MNEs can coerce governments into tailoring policies that suit their ends. Such is the world of real politic that often political ideology comes second to the imperatives of business needs. This other, more vicious, side to MNEsÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship to political ideology is not exposited in the book. This is a c onsiderable omission, for, often, businesses operate in the world of real-politic and not stated political ideology. The authors claim in their introduction to the book that their objective is to achieve an Ã¢â¬Å"effective balance between authoritative theory and meaningful practice.Ã¢â¬ But, disappointingly, this objective has not been met by virtue of the afore-stated omission. Just as Political Ideology has an impact on MNE operations, the local culture also has an impact. This facet to MNE management is brought to light by Redpath & Nielsen in their journal article titled Ã¢â¬ËA Comparison of Native Culture, Non-Native Culture and New Management IdeologyÃ¢â¬â¢ published in the prestigious French language journal Revue Canadienne Des Sciences De L'Administration. One of the challenges facing MNEs when they enter a new market is dealing with local cultural sensibilities. There is no systematic approach to resolving this challenge. Often a charismatic leadership with a tact ful and diplomatic approach toward understanding local culture works best. Daniels et al in their book on International Business do not deal with this component of MNE operations in any great detail. On the other hand, the article by Redpath & Nielsen does. They describe Ã¢â¬Å"HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s five key dimensions of national cultural differences and examine the connections between cultural values and management practices.Ã¢â¬ (Redpath & Nielsen, 2007) HofstedeÃ¢â¬â¢s dimensions are then analyzed to Ã¢â¬Å"provide insights into the differences between Native and non-Native cultures and how Native organizations may draw on traditional cultural values to improve organizational effectiveness. In general, Native cultures are described as collectivist, egalitarian, adaptive, and tolerant. The argument is made that the cultural context in which Native organizations operate is in many ways more compatible with the new management ideology than is the society in which this ideology pre vails.Ã¢â¬ (Redpath & Nielsen, 2007) One of the drawbacks in the book by Daniels and his team is the lack of rigor in referring to economic theories that are the backbone of modern business. For example, the major principles of capitalism as laid down by Adam Smith, and which are still central to modern business operations, do find much mention at all. It should be remembered that capitalism is as much a political ideology as it is an economic system. In the era of neoliberal capitalism, this sparse treatment of theory by Daniels et al is a
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Health Care Reform Matrix - Assignment Example Purchasing a studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ travel health insurance coverage would help safeguard students from unanticipated accidents while abroad. Foreign students studying in America can receive international student health insurance plans. The student health advantage enables them to obtain the visa and covers costs such as mental health maternity, or international emergency care services. The law allows a review of international student benefits insurance plan annually to help cater for expense costs. Affordable care act implementation has resulted in reforms in student health provisions such as affordable health insurance covers. Presently, both American and alien college students can obtain travel insurances or international emergency covers easily and faster than before. Affordable care act reforms have promoted comprehensive access to health care. Nearly all USA citizens can access quality health care services because of reduced costs of health insurance and coverage. The health reforms have resulted into prevention of excessive spending in the healthcare sector. The reforms also advocate rights, insurance rules, new on creation, spending and tax issues (Murdock, 2012). Medicaid program initiated methods of helping poor individuals in the society to obtaining quality health care services. The program enabled provision of health services to many poor income citizens in America. The affordable care Act reforms would result in the creation of new Medicaid groups between the ages of nineteen to sixty-five. Medicaid beneficiaries would not be entitled to Medicaid incarceration. Medicaid reform would also ensure for the deduction of health costs for children, families and pregnant women. The Medicaid reforms, however, do not affect Medicaid groups such as foster care children, aged and disabled persons. Reforms in health care law would help states to issue and manage Medicaid coverage.
Friday, July 26, 2019
Intermediaries in Funding - Essay Example However, growth is directly associated to the introduction of financial asset or capital. The selection of right intermediary to obtain finance is not a straight forward process though, it is universally agreed that a commercial bank may serve that purpose well. Banking institution provides a certain amount of confidence and trust both to borrowers and lenders, due to the legal and ethical framework that normally regulates it. Bank provides loan as working capital to small and medium enterprises but also also provides some elements of institutionalised flexibility which greatly facilitates the concerned business as "intermediary are usually less risky"( Schenk. n.d). Many other intermediaries are available to obtain working capital for businesses. However, certain hindering factors come to surface seriously especially when it comes to guaranteed resettlement of borrowed capital and certain companies will have limitations depending on the stage they have reach in finance cycle. The extent of growth will influence thus the relationship with financial institutions and other s. The larger the companies the bigger are the trust customer and other institutions have in them mainly when there is joint venturing during which occurs mostly during diversification. Businesses at large are faced with extreme internal and external challenges.
Thursday, July 25, 2019
What caused the Great Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-8 - Essay Example The role of the Indian sepoys was a central one as without their initial rising, other classes would not have been able to initiate such a high level of revolt. The hatred of sepoys attracted all other classes as well and this in turn resulted in the great sepoy rebellion and one of the major rebellions in the history of India. It is often referred to as the first Indian nationalist uprising. Although people from all over India were involved, the major areas of rebellion included the Northern areas of India and Bengal. The Indian sepoys tried to popularize the event by asking the last Mughal emperor to re-establish the Mughal Empire. Through this, they did gain wider support; however, the emperor did not have much power left. Therefore, the revolt was not successful to be turned into a widespread national revolt as the British were able to control it to some extent. Although the rebellion started as a military cause, it took on hold as majority of Indians joined this to show their resentment against the British. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the British took hold of Bengal and took advantage by introducing reforms and policies against the peasants and traders. Along with this, other major causes including religious, political, social resulted in the great rebellion of 1857. The most important cause of this great rebellion included the growing resentment of the Indian sepoys towards their British masters. These sepoys were basically peasants and therefore, supported the farmer community of India at that time. Therefore, the adverse policies of the British government for the agricultural sector greatly affected the feelings of the sepoys as well as they could relate to the actual feelings of the farmer community. Secondly, these sepoys were greatly dissatisfied with the discriminatory promotion and payment policies. The European soldiers were paid more salary although the majority chunk of the work was done by the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Perform critical analysis of images used by the media, example, commercial - Research Paper Example The audience which this was based on could range from those who were only beginning to drive to individuals who were looking for upgrades for their car for either longer road trips or to drive within the city. The tone of the commercial is inclusive of two voice overs, both males. The commercial takes the tone of boys that are playing with toy cars and which are Ã¢â¬ËpretendingÃ¢â¬â¢ to take specific turns with the car to overcome danger, make the commercial and to present a specific viewpoint about what the car represents. The tone is also inclusive of an undertone of believing in everything that the car can do, despite the sense of make Ã¢â¬â believe which is being conducted through the two voice overs. The message that is stated is based on the spoken communication, which includes everything one wants to be in the car, ranging from the hot woman driving Ã¢â¬Å"super fastÃ¢â¬ to overcoming a chase to being a school teacher. The stated message then moves into the slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"Chevy Runs DeepÃ¢â¬â¢ to show that the car is for everyone. The implied message goes into the car being able to be every person who drives the car is able to achieve all of their dreams. The concept of the film and the message which is created goes into the brand meeting the mental model of consumers. The concept used through the narration is first given as a speed effect, which elevates mood. This is done with a 1 minute commercial which continuously changes speed, has fast talking men thinking about the commercial and which shows the message of how the car can allow an individual to be anything. This elevates the mood, specifically toward the end when they end the clip with the woman driver being a teacher. However, the message which is implied moves beyond this. The car goes through the scenes that are from other cars, such as driving through a desert, going on a high speed chase in the city and jumping from a building. These are known not to be realistic which makes a mockery out of the past commercials and of the competitors, showing that a car used for everyday life still has the same capacities for those who need a high Ã¢â¬â quality car. The exposure to the settings of other car commercials, as well as the implications with the fast speech and imagination which leads into reality then creates a personal connection of what it means to own a car which is needed for everyday life (Sutherland, 1). Film Techniques The techniques which are used through the film continue with adding in the persuasion of the commercial. The beginning only has the voice overs and a black scene, which then moves into Ã¢â¬Å"I have a great idea for the Camero commercialÃ¢â¬ followed by seeing the desert and a car in the distance. This landscape shot is followed by moving close in to the car but not distinguishing the features, which is then followed by the voice overs saying Ã¢â¬Å"bam! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s super fast.Ã¢â¬ These two first shots build the curiosity of th e consumer and grab the attention of those who are watching the commercial. The curiosity and attachment to the film continues to build with a quick clip which changes into another close up of showing the car swerving through mirrors. The camera angle uses a slant instead of a straight shot to show that there is a sense of not carrying a sense of reality. This
Week 7 discussion - Essay Example Each pair of students will stand at the end of a one hundred meters track stretch. Along the track, there will be minor obstacles such as ankle length huddles, tires and a simple block puzzle. One student leads another blind folded student through the obstacles to the end of the track where they will Ã¢â¬Å"tap you are itÃ¢â¬ the other half of the team and they will go through the same process. . The students, in their respective groups, will carry out the obstacle race activity under strict supervision. It is imperative that the gym instructor is present. Also, the winning team will get small gifts like Ã¢â¬Å"coolÃ¢â¬ pens. The concept here is to provide a fun way to explore the importance of meaningful interpersonal relationships. The blind fold is crucial to introduce the aspect of human dependence. The students, within the groups, will comprise of different genders, race and ethnic background; the aim is to show that human cooperation goes beyond societal prejudices. The obstacles will make the activity more challenging and competitive. This activity is a break from other activities such as watching films that have graphic scenes of acts of intolerance in society such as racial prejudice. Also, the aspect of fairness will be brought out as the gym instructor and I oversee the activity to ensure that the winner is legitimate. Good morning class? Please confirm that your attire is well won, fitting and shoe laces are well tied to avoid any accidents. In previous lessons, the subject of tolerance and meaningful human interactions has concentrated on books with literature on heroes such asÃ¢â¬ ¦ (The students should then raise their hands to give relevant examples). However, this class needs a practical example on how to set aside differences and work as one human entity. I will divide the students into groups of four, two girls and two boys (it will not be evident to the students that the groups are heterogeneous in
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
American View of Slavery from 1790 to 1820s - Essay Example Slave Trade: The Europeans justified the slave trade by proclaiming that they were providing an opportunity for Africans to become Christians. By the 17th century the removal of slaves from Africa became a holy cause that had the full support of the Christian church.(Walvin 1983). Also, race and racism provided the excuse slave owners needed to allow themselves to own slaves without feeling guilty. Ã¢â¬Å"Slavery was not a side show in American historyÃ¢â¬ , says Dr. James Horton of George Washington University; Ã¢â¬Å"It was the main eventÃ¢â¬ . In his book American Slavery Ã¢â¬â American Freedom, Edmund S. Morgan makes a searching study of the tragic contradiction which was at the core of America, as seen in Virginia. It was the first state to start the freedom struggle through the Revolution and was also the largest slave holder in the country. The labor of enslaved Africans proved crucial in the development of South Carolina, Georgia, and Maryland, and contributed indirect ly through commerce to the fortunes of New York, Massachussetts, and Pennsylvania. The Africans were made to work on fields to grow rice, cotton, indigo, sugarcane, tobacco, etc.They also worked in the commercial economy and as domestic servants . Slavery took deepest root in Louisiana and other territories in the South. Several revolts and uprisings took place, in protest against the inhuman conditions and treatment meted out to the Africans.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Persuasive Bullying Essay This article is a practical help for you in your persuasive bullying essay writing. In order to write a good persuasive bullying essay, you have to become determine with the fact what the bullying is and how badly it influences the people. The definition of the notion of bullying is as follows: bullying is an open aggression towards a person or towards a group of people by the other person or a group of people. There are so many kinds of bullying, however, we are going to deal with the bullying, which is taking place in the colleges and other higher educational establishments because of this problem is too sharp in this very field nowadays. In order to write a professional persuasive bullying essay you have to write it from the prism of psychology. That is why be ready to investigate and analyze a lot while your persuasive bullying essay writing. A Topic Addressing a Common Occurrence Bullying Essays Need Novel and Fresh Perspectives Have you ever been bullied? Have you ever bullied someone? Sometimes what we think as simple teasing may amount to bullying in the eyes and the minds of someone with a sensitive mind. Therefore, this is a common occurrence which has repercussions which most of us may not foresee. Writing a bullying essay, can contain the feelings you had when either being bullied or bullying someone. On the other hand, it could be about the repercussions as mental trauma undergone by the victims. There are many ways in which to write this essay. However, firstly, we need to understand what bullying is. Defining Bullying Bullying is behaviour where one individual who is usually physically bigger act obnoxiously, annoying and physically and mentally disturbing another individual. Most often bullying comes from people who are either lacking in social skills or some form of personal affliction or a complex. Bullying is most common in young children. There are many instances where a small made child is often bullied by bigger and aggressive children. But we also see adults resorting to bullying younger children or more timid individuals. Write a Bullying Essay Which Address this Social Bane The Dire Repercussions of Bullying can be addressed in a Bullying Essay Bullying is something which can occur in many places. Bullying will begin mainly in schools, beginning at the age of ten or twelve. However, it is something which many people do regardless of age as well. This extends the habit to colleges, work place and even home. Writing a bullying essay will educate you and others on the repercussions of bullying. Your essay on bullying can be handled in various ways. If you wish, you will be able to concentrate on the repercussions of being bullied, especially once itÃ¢â ¢s carried too far, how to stop bullying, and the reasons for bullying. Make sure that you develop a proper essay layout and plan what part of bullying you will concentrate on in your essay.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Study On Hand Hygiene In Optometry Nursing Essay Hand hygiene is a term used to describe any act of hand cleansing. There are various methods of decontamination each with their own level of efficacy (Lucet et al., 2002; Kampf, LÃ ¶ffler and Gastmeier, 2009). It is an essential practice among health care workers (HCWs) to prevent the transmission of microorganisms and spread of nosocomial infections in a clinical setting. Despite this knowledge, compliance among HCWs remains low averaging 40% which increases the risk of patients contracting hospital acquired infections (Boyce and Pittet, 2002). The World Health Organisation (2005) recognise hospital acquired infections as being a major cause of death and mortality in hospital bound patients, averaging 5000 deaths a year in England. Improving hand hygiene practice among HCWs is the cornerstone in reducing nosocomial infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcis aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile (C. diff.). However, implementing this change in behaviour is complex and difficult to achieve. An integral factor for improved hand hygiene compliance relies on HCWs educational training and the introduction of motivational programmes designed specifically to influence behaviour. Monitoring and encouragement will be necessary for these procedures to be successful (Boyce, 2008; Saint et al., 2009). 1.2 Hand hygiene in Optometry There is an apparent lack of research into hand hygiene practice in a primary and community care setting; optometric practice included. Currently there are no evidence based studies directly linked with Optometry to support the recommended guidelines set out by The College of Optometrists. Instead these guidelines are based on expert opinion with little conclusive evidence of efficacy in primary care. The importance of effective hand hygiene in the prevention and control of infection is stressed. They have adopted recommendations set by The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE 2003), which are for the use of professionals in primary and community care. A minimum standard of hand hygiene practice would be to decontaminate hands before each and every episode of patient contact and after any procedure or contact that would cause hands to become contaminated. The College of Optometrists (2009) expand upon this stipulating that there is no set regularity in hand was hing episodes and that instead it should be adhered to in circumstances such as contact lens insertion and removal, after going to the toilet, when hands appear visibly unclean, before and after contact with ocular surfaces or the adnexa, before and after administering topical ointments or drops, after any possible microbial contamination, after handling soiled or contaminated materials and before wearing and after removing gloves. Furthermore, an instruction of appropriate hand hygiene technique in clinical practice is suggested: Wet hands under running water. Dispense soap/antiseptic into cupped hand (N.B. bar soap should not be used). Rub hands vigorously and thoroughly for 10-15 seconds without adding more water. Ensure all surfaces of the hands are covered. Rinse hands thoroughly under warm running water. Dry hands with a disposable paper towel. The use of non disposable towels is not good practice. Advisory recommendations for optometrists regarding hand hygiene in the community setting remains at a robust level. To improve standards, further research must be conducted as it is widely regarded that sound clinical practice requires conclusive clinical evidence (Smith, 2009). Optometrists in a primary care setting could benefit from adopting higher standards of hygiene expected in hospital environments. 1.3 Hand hygiene guidelines and technique Due to the clinical and economic implications of health-care associated infection the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have formulated guidelines to promote improved hand hygiene adherence among health care workers (Boyce and Pittet, 2002; Pittet, Allegranzi and Boyce, 2009; Sax et al., 2009). These guidelines include specific indications for hand washing and hand antisepsis episodes. A detailed description of appropriate hand hygiene technique is also included. The recommendations are categorised on the basis of published scientific data, theoretical knowledge, applicability in a clinical setting and economic involvement. The CDC/HICPAC created a system for categorising hand hygiene recommendations. These categories are shown in Table 1 Table 1 showing the CDC/ HICPAC categorisation of guidelines (Boyce and Pittet, 2002) Category Criteria IA Strongly recommended for implementation and strongly supported by well-designed experimental, clinical or epidemiologic studies IB Strongly recommended for implementation and strongly supported by certain experimental, clinical, or epidemiologic studies and a strong theoretical rationale. IC Required for implementation, as mandated by federal or state regulation or standard II Suggested for implementation and supported by suggestive clinical or epidemiological studies or a theoretical rationale or a consensus by a panel of experts. No recommendation Unresolved issue. Practices for which insufficient evidence or no concensus regarding efficicacy exist. Sections 1, 2 and 6 of the CDC/HICPAC recommendations advise specifically on handwashing and hand antisepsis indications, hand-hygiene technique and other aspects of hand hygiene. Each guideline is given a classification category relevant to Table 1. These recommendations are as follows: 1. Indications for handwashing and hand antisepsis A. When hands are visibly dirty or contaminated with proteinaceous material or are visibly soiled with blood or other body fluids, wash hands with either a nonantimicrobial soap and water or an antimicrobial soap and water (IA). B. If hands are not visibly soiled, use an alcohol-based hand rub for routinely decontaminating hands in all other clinical situations described in items 1C-J (IA). Alternatively, wash hands with an antimicrobial soap and water in all clinical situations described in items1C-J (IB). C. Decontaminate hands before having direct contact with patients (IB). D. Decontaminate hands before donning sterile gloves when inserting a central intravascular catheter (IB). E. Decontaminate hands before inserting urinary catheters, peripheral vascular catheters, or other invasive devices that do not require a surgical procedure (IB). F. Decontaminate hands after contact with a patients intact skin (e.g., when taking a pulse or blood pressure, and lifting a patient) (IB). G. Decontaminate hands after contact with body fluids or excretions, mucous membranes, nonintact skin, and wound dressings if hands are not visibly soiled (IA). H. Decontaminate hands if moving from a contaminated-body site to a clean-body site during patient care (II. I. Decontaminate hands after contact with inanimate objects (including medical equipment) in the immediate vicinity of the patient (II). J. Decontaminate hands after removing gloves (IB). K. Before eating and after using a restroom, wash hands with a non-antimicrobial soap and water or with an antimicrobial soap and water (IB). L. Antimicrobial-impregnated wipes (i.e., towelettes) may be considered as an alternative to washing hands with non-antimicrobial soap and water. Because they are not as effective as alcohol-based hand rubs or washing hands with an antimicrobial soap and water for reducing bacterial counts on the hands of HCWs, they are not a substitute for using an alcohol-based hand rub or antimicrobial soap (IB). M. Wash hands with non-antimicrobial soap and water or with antimicrobial soap and water if exposure to Bacillus anthracis is suspected or proven. The physical action of washing and rinsing hands under such circumstances is recommended because alcohols, chlorhexidine, iodophors, and other antiseptic agents have poor activity against spores (II). N. No recommendation can be made regarding the routine use of nonalcohol-based hand rubs for hand hygiene in health-care settings.(Unresolved issue). 2. Hand-hygiene technique A. When decontaminating hands with an alcohol-based hand rub, apply product to palm of one hand and rub hands together, covering all surfaces of hands and fingers, until hands are dry (IB). Follow the manufacturers recommendations regarding the volume of product to use. B. When washing hands with soap and water, wet hands first with water, apply an amount of product recommended by the manufacturer to hands, and rub hands together vigorously for at least 15 seconds, covering all surfaces of the hands and fingers. Rinse hands with water and dry thoroughly with a disposable towel. Use towel to turn off the faucet (IB). Avoid using hot water, because repeated exposure to hot water may increase the risk of dermatitis (IB). C. Liquid, bar, leaflet or powdered forms of plain soap are acceptable when washing hands with a nonantimicrobial soap and water. When bar soap is used, soap racks that facilitate drainage and small bars of soap should be used (II). D. Multiple-use cloth towels of the hanging or roll type are not recommended for use in health-care settings (II). 6. Other Aspects of Hand Hygiene A. Do not wear artificial fingernails or extenders when having direct contact with patients at high risk (e.g., those in intensive-care units or operating rooms) (IA). B. Keep natural nails tips less than 1/4-inch long (II). C. Wear gloves when contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials, mucous membranes, and nonintact skin could occur (IC). D. Remove gloves after caring for a patient. Do not wear the same pair of gloves for the care of more than one patient, and do not was gloves between uses with different patients (IB). E. Change gloves during patient care if moving from a contaminated body site to a clean body site (II). F. No recommendation can be made regarding wearing rings in health-care settings. Unresolved issue. These guidelines were developed for the use of health care professionals in a clinical setting and were not specifically designed with optometric practice in mind. However, many of these recommendations remain highly relevant when adopted to an optometric environment and are strongly supported by The College of Optometrists. The World Health Organisation have extended the recommendations on hand-hygiene technique and produced a visual publication poster detailing the hand hygiene technique for use with alcohol-based formulations and the handwashing technique for use with soap and water. These are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. Figure 1 showing recommended hand hygiene technique with an alcohol-based formulation (World Health Organisation 2006) ***online access reference 2 Figure 2 showing recommended handwashing technique using soap and water (World Health Organisation 2006) **online access reference 1.4 Hand hygiene practices among health care workers Hand hygiene practice among health care workers is poor with many observational studies reporting low compliance rates in a number of indicative areas. Hence, understanding current trends among health care workers is critical in planning and implementing the necessary modification in behaviour (Allegranzi and Pittet, 2009). Hand hygiene adherence can be investigated over a range of parameters such as duration spent cleansing or disinfecting, frequency of hand washing episodes over a given time and observing the variations in performance with regard to clinical setting, physician status and gender (Boyce and Pittet, 2002). Employing the appropriate hand hygiene technique is essential. Consider the situation in which hand hygiene episodes per hour compliance is high. If insufficient hand hygiene technique is being performed e.g. inadequate coverage of hand surfaces and a short cleansing time, then the overall standard of compliance will decrease. This confirms that hand hygiene practic es among health care practitioners involves both multimodal strategies and multidisciplinary approaches to improve adherence (Pittet, 2001; Dierssen-Sotos et al., 2009). Multiple factors are associated with the suboptimal hand hygiene performance among health care practitioners and they vary in relation to resources available and the setting involved. For example, the lack of appropriate infrastructure, equipment and materials will hinder good hand hygiene practice, the cultural background and perhaps even religious beliefs can also affect performance (Ahmed et al., 2006; Allegranzi et al., 2009). The most commonly reported causes of poor hand hygiene compliance are: (i) physician or nursing status, (ii) clinical care setting e.g. ICU, AE, surgery units (iii) understaffing and overcrowding (iv) male (rather than female) gender and (v) inaccessible hand hygiene supplies (Pittet, 2000). (Erasmus et al., 2010) conducted a systematic literature review of studies based on observed or self-reported hand hygiene compliance rates in hospital practice, mainly intensive care units. The median compliance rate was low at 40%. Physician status was found to be a factor affecting adherence, lower among doctors (32%) than nurses (48%). In general, a lower compliance rate was found in physicians reporting a high level of activity in clinical practice. Compliance rates improved in situations whereby physicians or nurses associated the task as being visibly dirty or unhygienic, alcohol-based hand rubs or gels were available, feedback performance was introduced and when materials and facilities were easily accessible. Hand hygiene compliance among optometric practitioners is an area yet to be investigated. Opticians are encouraged to follow the recommended guidelines set by organisational bodies such as the World Health Organisation and The College of Optometrists. 1.5 Hand hygiene behaviour Hand hygiene behaviour can be investigated in relation to factors such as social cognitive determinants. A number of situations trigger a hand cleansing episode to occur and therefore affect compliance e.g. knowledge and perception of the risks associated with cross contamination, social expectations for adequate hygiene, self evaluation of the perceived advantages against the existing hindrances and the initial motivation to perform the hand hygiene action (Pittet, 2004; Whitby et al., 2007). This cognitive behavioural response falls into two categories (Whitby, McLaws and Ross, 2006). Inherent hand hygiene behaviour arises in circumstances when individuals deem hands to be visibly soiled, sticky or gritty. This type of intrinsic hand washing behaviour is initiated when a task is recognised as being unhygienic or has a potential risk factor involved to the individual concerned. The other component of hand hygiene behaviour is denoted as elective hand hygiene behaviour. This type of behaviour is represented in situations such as tactile social contact e.g. shaking hands to greet someone. This will not induce a response for many individuals to wash their hands and instead it becomes an elective response. Similarly, health care workers may partake in non-invasive impersonal contact with patients when taking pulses or touching inanimate objects in their surroundings. This type of social contact is not perceived to be a danger and does not drive a hand cleansing episode to take place. Instead an elective response has to be made. However, hand cleansing or disinfection after such contact in a hospital setting is crucial, because failure to do so may lead to microbial hand contamination, with the increased risk of cross-infection. 1.6 Relation of hand hygiene with the acquisition of nosocomial infections Hand hygiene reduces the transmission of microbial contamination and the spread of health-care associated pathogens from one patient to another via the hands of health care workers (Pessoa-Silva et al., 2007; Pittet et al., 2007; Allegranzi et al., 2010). Hand hygiene is the cornerstone in securing adequate patient safety. Failure to comply with this standard prolongs duration of hospitalisation, causes unnecessary suffering, increases costs as well as mortality rates (World Health Organisation, 2009). Thus, to raise awareness and combat the problem of health care associated infections, (Sax et al., 2007) produced an evidence-based, user-centred design to promote improved hand hygiene adherence termed My Five Moments for Hand Hygiene, shown in Fig.3. This highlights the five most common routes of transmission which HCWs are exposed to in daily clinical practice. The model is based on the World Health Organisations hand hygiene guidelines. It recommends hand washing episodes to occur before touching a patient, before clean/aseptic procedures, after a body fluid exposure risk, after patient contact and after touching patient surroundings. Although designed specifically for HCWs in a clinical setting, this model could be adopted for use in community practice to include an optometric environment. Optometrists should be aware of the risks of cross contamination and demonstrate an understanding of appropriate infection control methods (Lakkis et al., 2007). Figure 3- My 5 moments for hand hygiene model 1.7 Infection control in optometry Modern optometric practitioners are offering an expanding area of services and care with regards to the treatment and management of eye diseases and eye injuries. Therefore, more specialised procedures and techniques are being carried out in the primary care setting which have the potential to spread infection and disease via blood borne and air borne transmission. Hence, practitioners have an obligation to carry out adequate infection control measures to ensure a high standard of patient safety and protection (Tyhurst and Hettler, 2009). The majority of optometric procedures are considered low risk for the spread of disease and infection. However, in a few occasions the risk increases e.g. when instruments come in direct contact with an infected patient and when blood, cuts or abrasions are exposed (AOA Primary Care and Ocular Disease Committee, (1993). Other procedures which have the potential for infection include the collection of eye culture samples, foreign body removal, contac t lens fitting, lacrimal lavage and the treatment of patients exhibiting ocular trauma. 1.7.1 Hand hygiene and protective barriers to infection A basic measure of infection control begins with effective hand hygiene. Many eye diseases and infections are spread manually, and it is the responsibility of the optometrist to minimise this transmission to patients by adhering to appropriate hand washing techniques before and after examinations and procedures. Appropriate hand hygiene technique refers to the standard described in section 1.2. In addition, the use of protective barriers such as disposable medical gloves, gowns, masks and protective eyewear has been suggested in specialised circumstances as a precautionary control to minimise the transmission of microorganisms (Lakkis et al., 2007). 1.7.2 HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Diseases can be spread by direct contact between individuals, via blood or other bodily fluids and as a result of airborne transmission. Considerable awareness has been directed towards the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B and C viruses, (HBV) and (HBC). HIV has been isolated from tears, contact lenses and ocular tissues, but there is no evidence to support transmission of the disease through these medians (Cantrill et al., 1988; Tillman, Klotz and Maino, 1992). Studies have reported the detection of the hepatitis B surface antigen in tears and aqueous humour, suggesting that optometrists must take all necessary precautions in clinical practice (Temel, Seber and Gunay, 1990; Tsai et al., 2009). Although these are areas of concern, the risk of transmission in an optometric setting is remote. 1.7.3 Influenza A (H1N1) virus In 2009, the emergence of the influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans has led to the first global pandemic in 41 years. It is more commonly referred to as swine flu and is made up of porcine, avian and human genes. Although a potentially fatal disease, the mortality rate is expected to be less than previously known influenza pandemics and is more likely to cause harm to young people and individuals with compromised health (CDC 2009). In order to contain the spread of this infection, health care personnel were advised to heighten infection control measures. (Kiely et al., 2009) discussed specific infection control guidelines applicable in an optometric environment. A basic measure of infection control begins with frequent handwashing. Due to the close proximity to patients throughout the eye examination, in a more extreme guideline, it was recommended that optometrists should wear personal protective equipment such as surgical masks, goggles, gowns and gloves when treating a suspected infe ctious individual. It was indicated that influenza A (H1N1) should be treated like any other form of influenza. 1.7.4 Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease The theoretical transmission of prions, implicated in Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (CJD) and variant Creutzfeldt Jacob Disease (vCJD) is an area of concern in optometric practice (Lakkis et al., 2007). These diseases are degenerative neurological conditions that are incurable and invariably fatal. Reusing ophthalmic devices such as RGP trial lenses and contact tonometer heads has been identified as a possible risk factor in spreading this disease from one patient to another but has been described as highly improbable (Armstrong, 2006). 1.7.5 Summary of infection control in optometric practice Due to the potential risk factors in an optometric environment, practitioners must abide by the recommended guidelines in order to control the spread of infection and disease. Lack of motivation and insufficient knowledge of expected protocol will lead to non-compliance among optometrists. Hence eye care personnel are advised to develop and implement a suitable infection control policy within practice (Seewoodhary and Stevens, 1999; Stevens, 2008). 2.0 Aim The purpose of this survey was to examine the typical hand hygiene practice among optometrists in a primary care setting. It investigates the level of compliance among practitioners to include the type of hand products used, hand hygiene technique and the hand hygiene facilities available in various optometric environments. 3. 0 Method 3.1 Survey design In order to determine the role of hand hygiene in optometric practice, a questionnaire was designed to gain an insight into hand hygiene product use, hand hygiene technique, facilities and general compliance among practitioners. The questionnaire was split up into three sections, All About You, Facilities and Hand Hygiene Technique. It consisted of 28 questions, the majority being mandatory to answer. The format of questions was either on a yes-no basis, multiple choice, tick box and rating of answers using a scale based response. Questions were designed on the basis of international guidelines regarding hand hygiene. A detailed literature review was conducted to ascertain appropriate hand hygiene technique, hand hygiene facilities and reported barriers to hand washing. The questions from the survey are shown in the Appendix. 3.2 Survey circulation The questionnaire was launched using Bristol Online Surveys. This is a site used by over 200 UK organisations in order to develop, distribute and analyse web-based surveys. It was sent to volunteers via e-mail using a webpage link. 3.3 Volunteers A total of 124 individuals responded to the survey which included optometrists working in university, hospital, multiple, franchise and independent optometric practice around the UK. If an individual worked in a combination of practices, they were instructed to answer questions based on the place they worked most of the time. All participants were asked to answer honestly as the survey would remain anonymous. 3.3 Survey analysis Results were recorded online within the Bristol Online Surveys (BOS) site. Key features of the BOS results section included the option of statistical investigation, cross tabulation of answers, looking at individual responses and the export of data to a spreadsheet document on Microsoft Excel. The data was analysed and arranged into a variety of tables, graphs and pie charts for easier interpretation of results. 4.0 Results 4.1 All about you A total of 124 optometric practitioners took part in the study. An almost even distribution of gender was found totalling 61 males and 63 females, with an average age Ã ± SD of 41.4 Ã ± 15.5. The majority of individuals who responded to the questionnaire were Cardiff University graduates totalling 26%, followed by City University, Aston University , The University of Bradford , The University of Manchester and Glasgow Caledonian. The remaining sector of individuals were grouped in the category other and included graduates from Auckland University, Bradford College, Dublin Institute of Technology, Northampton Polytechnic, Rand Afrikaans University, Southern College of Optometry, University of Durban and the University of Ulster. This is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. University attended by each participant The number of years qualified as an optometrist was investigated and is shown in Fig. 5. Most respondents have been qualified for 21-30 years, followed by participants who have been practicing for less than 5 years. A small minority of individuals have been qualified for more than 40 years. Figure 5. Years qualified as an optometrist Over half of respondents work in independent practice, with a smaller proportion working in a variety of practices such as multiples, hospital based settings, a combination of practices and franchises. The minority fall into the category named other e.g. domiciliary practitioners, retired optometrists and University based optometrists who no longer practice. This is shown in Fig. 6. Figure 6. Type of practice participants work in Figure 7. Gender related response regarding hand washing or disinfection between each patient episode Fig. 7 illustrates that more females than males wash or disinfect hands between each patient episode. 71.1% of the male and female optometrists who wash or disinfect hands between each patient episode, do so in front of the client. Table 2. Reasons for not washing or disinfecting hands between each patient episode Reasons Male response as a % Female response as a % Busy clinic 24 57 Forget 20 43 Unnecessary 48 76 Lack of facilities 4 5 Sore skin 8 19 Other 12 14 Practitioners who do not wash or disinfect hands between each patient episode (25 males and 21 females) were asked their reasons for not doing so. More than one answer could be selected and is shown in table 2. The majority of these individuals deemed hand washing or disinfection an unnecessary practise. Twice as many females compared to males report that the busy clinic prevents such behaviour occurring, they forget or blame sore skin as reasons for not washing hand between each patient episode. Refer to Table 3 for Other responses. Table 3. Other reasons for not washing or disinfecting between each patient episode Other responses from optometric practitioners: Never been part of routine Was never stressed during University or Pre-reg Only recently became an issue Wash hands for each contact lens patient, but not all refraction patients Hand wash during the appointment and not between Figure 8. Practitioner response as a percentage regarding patient greeting with a handshake Fig. 8 illustrates that just under half of respondents do not greet patients with a handshake. The remaining individuals answered yes or sometimes to this form of patient contact. 39.5% of male optometrists and 44% of female optometrists who greet patients with a handshake, wash or disinfect their hands after this contact. Figure 9. Satisfaction of hand hygiene practises The vast majority of individuals have a high level of satisfaction with the hand hygiene practices currently employed at the practice where they work. Collectively, 8.9% of individuals are fairly unsatisfied or unsatisfied with current hand hygiene practises. Results are illustrated in Fig. 9. 4.2 Practice facilities and structure The questionnaire investigated the number of staff members in each individual practice to include optometrists, locum optometrists, dispensing opticians, optical assistants and receptionists. These results were calculated as a median function to include the range and are shown in Table 4. The frequency of patient appointments in an average working day were investigated and appointment duration. Practice facilities were reported upon such as number of consulting rooms and number of bathrooms. Results were averaged or calculated as a median function to include the range and are illustrated in Table 5. Table 4. Number of staff members in practice Position held (Median, range) Optometrist (1, 1-20) Locum Optometrist (0, 0-5) Dispensing Optician (1, 0-6) Optical assistant (1, 0-35) Receptionist (2, 0-8) Table 5. General practice statistics and available facilities AverageÃ ±SD (Median, range) Number of patients seen per day per optometrist 13.8Ã ±3.74 (14, 10-25) Appointment length (in minutes) 30.7Ã ±6.21 (25, 15-60) Number of consulting rooms (2, 1-12) Number of bathrooms (1,1-5) In regard to practice facilities, greater than half of all participants are assigned to their own personal consulting room and report that the hand washing facility is separate from the toilet Three quarters of individuals said that there is at least one wash basin in each consulting room. Fig. 10 illustrates these findings. A large proportion of individuals reported that the practice they worked in did not display a poster detailing official recommendations on the hand washing and hand rubbing technique. Just under half of participants were aware of the poster being displayed in practice. The minority were unsure and this is shown in Fig. 11. Figure 10. Practice facilities Figure 11. Guidance poster detailing the advised handwashing and hand rubbing technique 3.3 Hand hygiene products Figure 12: The gender related practitioner response as a function of hand hygiene product use. A variety of hand hygiene products were listed. Participants rated how often they used each product in relation to the scale provided (always, most of the time, occasionally, very rarely or never). Results were plotted as a function of gender. Fig. 12(a) illustrates that the majority of male
Effect of Ayurvedic Drug on Drosophila Melanogaster Dr. Sonali Sengupta* Namrata Sain,Ã Lathika J,Ã Akshay Tharali Abstract:- The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster known as a model organism is widely used in mammalian cellular and developmental studies. Its vast genome similarity with the humans has facilitated for various genetic and physiological studies. Ayurvedic medicine represents a traditional form of medication used to treat various human illness and anomalies. This paper aims to study the effect of an anti-paralytic ayurvedic drug on the physiological and behavioural pattern of locomotion defective and neurophysiology defective strain of Drosophila. This study will also help us to draw an analogy to the effect or action of these ayurvedic drugs on human system and further lead us to better understanding of the condition. Keywords:- Drosophila melanogaster, Ayurvedic , behavioural, physiological Introduction:- Drosophila melanogaster acts as an ideal species for model systems and drug interaction studies. Due to its feasibility for culturing and short reproductive cycle it is used in various genetic research prospectives. The drosophila genome on account of its similarity with the human genome can be studied extensively to identify certain genes involved in disease condition and also aid in understanding the various regulatory mechanisms that are associated with it. Study of drug interaction in Drosophila can be very well co-related to its effect on humans and therefore various drug interaction studies have been conducted in various conditions thereby relating it to the genotype. Drug interaction with Drosophila can be used to study its genotoxic effect as well as any rectifying effect on the expressed phenotype of the organism. Locomotion rhythm and neurophysiology defective mutants of Drosophila melanogaster exhibit both structural and functional abnormality and can be considered analogus to human paralysis condition owing to the non-functioning of neurons stimulating the muscles. The ebony (e11) mutants of drosophila show locomotor rhythm defect along with a defect in the electrophysiology properties of the neurons, muscles leading to the characteristic movement defect. This condition can be related to the paralytic condition in humans and drug interaction with these mutants can be used as a future way for analysis and cure of the condition in humans. Ayurveda has represented a field of medications and formulations that have been used to treat various human abnormality conditions in India. Ayurvedic medicine represents various treated plant extracts and formulations which contain certain important compounds that target the affected sites in human disorder conditions. These ayurvedic medicines can be considered as an example of medications which have their efficacy related to the genoptypic constitution of the subject. Various anti-paralytic ayurvedic drugs target the neuronal and muscular components of the affected condition. This paper aims at studying the effect of such an Ayurvedic drug on the locomotion and neurophysiology defective mutants of Drosophila melanogaster and relating it to the human complex disorder conditions. Materials and Methods:- 2 types of strains were used. 1.Canton-S: Drosophila melanogaster of Canton-S wild type strain were obtained from Dr. Kavitha Thirumurugan, VIT University. They were maintained, cultured and outbred in large population in optimum temperature in our laboratory. 2. e11 (Dmele11tm3) The ebony e11 mutants were obtained from NCBS, Bangalore. They were cultured on corn meal medium maintained at 24C. The mutants showed phenotypic characteristics of locomotion rhythm and neurophysiology defective. Drug:- The Ayurvedic drug used was Amukkara choorana purchased from a local ayurvedic medicine shop in Vellore in form of tablets .The main ingredient of this medicine is Amukkara or Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Amukkara Choornam has an anti-arthritic activity and it is a restorative and nervine tonic. Experiment:- The wild type flies were cultured in 3 types of food:- (i) corn meal medium without drug (ii) medium with 0.01g drug i.e 100microgram of drug for 100 ml.(iii) medium with 0.05g drug i.e 500microgram of drug for 100 ml. (iv) medium with 0.1g drug i.e 1000 microgram of drug for 100 ml. The e11 mutants were also cultured in corn meal medium with and without out drug of the above mentioned concentration of drug. To observe drug administration from larval stage, 30 Wild type larva were also culture in normal medium as well as in medium with the above mentioned drug concentrations. The larva were transferred using a thin paint brush and carefully planted on the medium and cultured at constant temperature. Assays:- 1. Survival Assay:-The wild type and mutant flies were cultured in normal and drug medium for 7days (1 week) and their rate of survival was measured. 2. Climbing Assay:-10 wild type and mutant flies were observed for their characteristic climbing ability in normal and drug medium. 3. Light Sensitive Assay:-10 wild type and mutant files from each category were exposed to a light source for 2-5 minutes and their anti-geotrophic behaviour was observed. 4. Polytene chromosome analysis:-Wild type larva were dissected and polytene chromosomes were observed by acteocarmine staining for any chromosomal abberations. The larvae were collected from both normal and drug medium which were dissected with a mounted needle on a glass slide under the microscope and the polytene chromosomes were removed from the salivary glands. The polytene chromosomes were then fixed using freshly prepared chilled fixative (Methanol: Acetic acid 3:1) and stained with acetocarmine dye. It was then washed with glacial acetic acid,cover slip was placed . Mounting was done and observed under microscope. RESULTS:- Rate of Survival:- Fig 1:- Graph representing the survibility assay of the Wild type and e11 mutant flies over a period of 7 days cultured in corn meal medium without drug and with drug at 3 different concentrations (0.01g, 0.05g and 0.1g per 100 ml) Fig 2:- Wild type and e11 mutant flies cultured in corn meal medium. Climbing assay:- Fig 3:- e11 mutant in 0.1g drug food showing static behavior (lower one) Light Sensitive Assay:- The light sensitive assay was performed on Day 4:- Wild type in normal food:- The flies showed anti-geotropic behavior i.e attraction towards light. 8 out 10 were attracted towards light Wild type in 0.01g drug food:- showed jumping movement and falling cycle. Wild type in 0.05g drug food:- Flies showed geotropic behavior i.e withdrawl from light source. Wild type in 0.1g drug food:- Flies show complete withdrawl from light i.e they prefer to stay in dark Mutant in Normal food:- On exposure to light it showed mostly static behavior with minimal movement and difficulty in climbing due to weak muscle strength. Mutant in 0.01 drug food:- Extreme static behavior and difficulty in moving. Mutant in 0.05g and 0.1g drug food:- Not viable. Fig4:-Wild type flies in 0.1g drug food showing withdrawl from light exposure. Polytene chromosome analysis:- Polytene chromosome analysis revealed no chromosomal abberations in the wild type flies post exposure to varied concentrations of drug DISCUSSION:- In the above study both wild type and ebony mutant flies were cultured in three types of drug medium with each medium having increasing concentration of drug. Both the wild type and mutant flies showed decrease in survival rate in food with drug concentration 0.1g as well as in 0.05g with a more potent decrease in the 0.1g indicating lethality due to the drug dose. So the drug concentration was decreased to 0.01g which showed no decrease in survival rate for the wild type flies whereas the mutant flies showed less decrease in survival rate indicating minimal concentration of drug may induce a positive effect on survival rate. The Climbing assay showed that the mutants in 0.1 and 0.05g drug food showed shibire behaviour and inability to cling to the wall thus inferring muscle weakness before the drug proved lethal. Whereas mutants in 0.01g drug medium showed reduced climbing pace and static movement but had a positive effect on survival rate. Wild type flies in drug food showed no change in initial days but depicted slow climbing rate in later days. But when the drug was exposed from the larval stage, it showed a positive effect on the climbing as well as jumping behavior. Thus it can be concluded that the if the drug is exposed to the organism from the larval stage it produces a better effect as compared with adult stage. Thus it may concluded that incorporation of the drug during the larval stage may produce a curable effect as compared to that during adult stage, but further studies need to be done. Light sensitive assay revealed that wild type flies in 0.05g and 0.1g drug food showed geotropic behavior and complete withdrawl from light respectively. Mutants in drug food showed mostly static response to light. This study aims at finding out the drug interaction with the defective gene thereby drawing an analogy with the human genome. The effect of these drugs on the drosophila genome may provide an analogy as to which gene may be affected in case of patients with paralytic or muscular disorders and may also provide possible means of therapy for the management and treatment of the disorders. REFERENCES:- In Vivo Effects Of Traditional Ayurvedic Formulations in Drosophila melanogaster Model Relate with Therapeutic Applications by Vibha Dwivedi et.al 2012. The effects of exogenous antioxidants on lifespan and oxidative stress resistance in Drosophila melanogaster by Tapiwanashe Magwere et.al 2006 Dopamine modulates acute responses to cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in Drosophila Roland J. Bainton et .al 2000. Mutant human torsin A responsible for early onset dystonia, dominantly suppresses GTPCH expression, Dopamine levels and locomotion in Drosophila melanogaster by O donnell JM et al 2011. Drug resistance of bacteria commensal with Drosophila melanogaster in laboratory cultures Sultan, R et al 2001. 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