Saturday, August 31, 2019
There is no single cause of crime, it is rooted in a diversity of casual factors and takes a variety of forms, depending on the situation in which it occurs. Nonetheless, some theories of human behavior help us understand why certain people engage in acts that society defines as criminal or deviant, while others do not. A theory is a kind of model. Theories posit relationships, often of a casual sort, between events and things under study. Theories once created must be tested to determine whether they are valid and modern criminology has become increasingly scientific. There are many different theories that suggest why people commit crimes. Each of which has there own scientific explanation. Early biological theories of crime tried to establish a connection between physical deformity, disability and ugliness with crime. While borderline scientific disciplines such as physiognomy attempted to establish a link between facial features, personality and crime. Explanation of biological theories of crime favors biological traits as a dominant factor that will affect human behavior and actions. Biological theories of crime which in past years has fallen into disrepute are beginnings to experience something of a contemporary resurgence. Most early theories of the biological school of crime causation, which built on inherited or bodily characteristics and features, made certain fundamental assumptions. Basic determinants of human behavior, including criminal tenancies. The basic determinants of human behavior, including criminality, may be passed on from generation to generation. In other behavior is the result of biords, a penchant for crime may be inherited. Biological theories tended towards seeing crime as a form of illness, caused by pathological factors specific to certain classes of individuals. We assume people were born criminals Cesare Lombroso famous criminologist, rejected the classical school or rational choice model because he believe criminality was inherited.
Friday, August 30, 2019
Do you own a cellophane that you use on a dally basis? If yes, then think about where and when you make use of it. At work? At home? While cooking? Any free time that you can get your hands on your phone? What about when you're DRIVING? Because cell phones have become such a necessity in the world that we live in, people cannot go for long periods of time without turning to them to text, check Faceable or make a call. This impairs our Judgment and we don't always pay attention to the danger we put ourselves In when using cell phones.When the driver takes his/her eyes off the road to complete another task, almost all of the focus needed for safety is compromised. This is even more evident when he/she decides to read a text message and respond to it. This leads to a lack of visual focus on the road, one or both hands off the wheel and the mind thinking about the conversation on the phone instead of the surroundings of the vehicle: Ã¢â¬Å"For example, studies using a naturalistic method ology suggested that relative to interacted drivers, those drivers who text are 23 times as likely to crash,Ã¢â¬ (Wilson, Stepson).All of these factors add up to the formula of danger and disaster, which can lead to extremely brutal and even fatal accidents. Different people and organizations have taken it upon themselves to raise awareness about the dangers of testing and driving. A great example of this is the At&t 90 second documentary. It tells three different stories in which three different people were killed because of testing and driving. The stories were told by the family members of those who were killed. Two of the tragedies included the drivers who were testing and driving to be killed.A third included a car hitting a man on a bicycle because the driver was testing while driving (Ã¢â¬Å"Testing While Driving 90 Sec Documentary Preview'). These are personal stories being told by real people who have been affected by the negligent acts of the drivers behind the wheel. T hey hold a lot of power In them because It makes the audience think about their own lives and how they would feel If they were put in the same situation. The Ã¢â¬Å"No Testing while DrivingÃ¢â¬ campaign Is necessary because there are constantly headlines in the news about the fatalities due to testing while driving.The communicators are the families of those who have suffered and experienced the pain caused by the minor act. Their loved ones faced untimely deaths, which could have been avoided. They are trying to tell the rest of the world that no text message is worth dying over. They have been through the worst kind of pain and there Is no coming back from It. They will always feel that emptiness Inside of them. The audience is anyone and everyone that owns a cellophane and drives a vehicle. Everyone at one point has sent a text message while driving.People think that Just cause they were successful once, that they can do it again and not worry about losing focus while driving. This is not the case. It is also why we need to continue sending these messages to everyone to avoid such accidents. Cellophane companies have made a point to make commercials for the television to audience rethink their life and what is really important. We feel sympathy for those who have suffered and perhaps try to change our habits to avoid a similar fate. The cellophane companies also appeal to ethos. This is because they are credible sources.They are selling products that are being used by millions of people around the world. Carriers such as At, Verizon, and Sprint are well known, well established and trusted throughout the world. People rely on them and therefore those companies can have a major impact on changing the way people behave behind the wheel. Furthermore, on a smaller scale, schools and colleges have started to extend the campaign towards their students. Student leaders hang posters throughout the campuses and keep coming up with new ideas to promote safe driving . One of the ideas is the thumb bands that say Ã¢â¬Å"TAXING KILLS.This is extremely clever because people buy the bands and wear them on their thumbs so when they are driving and decide to pick up their phone to text, they will see the message on the band and decide against it. All these strategies are bringing all of us one step closer to making the world a safer place for all of us. Individual people, families, students and major companies can all make a difference. Whether it is on a minor scale or a major scale, every little bit helps. Every life saved is a reason to celebrate. Don't text and drive. Stay alive.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Introduction Every business needs a good manager Ã¢â¬â may it be a small family business or a large multinational corporation. There is no magic formula for being a good and effective manager Ã¢â¬â it is a continuing process and becoming one entails knowledge, skills and ability. It is not just a title but also a role that has to be performed and performed well. It is a product of working with and being around all classes of people Ã¢â¬â management team, clients, co-workers and others Ã¢â¬â and emanating the lessons learned in order to be better. Changes in management team, changes in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s directions, changes in priorities, even the simple changes of supervisors, transfer to other department, or the hiring of a new team member Ã¢â¬â these are but some of the changes that a staff may have to deal with in the workplace. These are also the major factors that affect any employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance and confidence, which make apparent the need for a good and capable manager Ã¢â¬â one that can help communicate and successfully enforce managementÃ¢â¬â¢s plans to the rest of the employees. As a manager, he should explain the reasons for the change and the processes involved. One possible consequence of any organizational change is the decrease in employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s morale and motivation, which could lead to a decrease in the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. This is but one of the many issues that a good manager has to handle. Discussion What is A Manager? A manager is the person who plans, leads and controls the activities of the organization. He balances the demands and requirements of the organization while at the same time, meets the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ expectations. A manager works hard to achieve the goals of the company without disregarding employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ welfare. A manager is often seen as the liaison between the management and the workforce. Among the many responsibilities of a manager is dealing with employees and addressing their issues and concerns. Thus, a manager must also learn to acknowledge and admit employee concerns. These issues could be an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s poor performance, sloppy work, negative work attitude or low confidence in the company. In other words, it is the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s role to assess and evaluate the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Not only does a manager address employee concerns, he also ensures that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and objectives are met. He plans, monitors and takes the lead towards the realization of business goals. Ã A manager delegates and coordinates work to his members, for which he must also be accountable. What Makes A Good Manager? Bill Gates recently wrote an article about the attributes of a good manager. One of the traits he mentioned is the need for a manager to be a good communicator. He must be able to convey managementÃ¢â¬â¢s plans and directions well and ensure that employees understand where the company hopes to be. Bill Gates also wrote that a good manager needs relationships, not only with the executives but most especially with his employees. He must encourage people to be open and give feedback about what they think about the business and the role the manager and the employees themselves play in it. With the varying requirements expected of a manager, it is therefore necessary for one to possess analytical skills, people skills and business skills for him to deliver and perform his functions well. It is also essential for a manager to be resourceful in finding appropriate courses of action to any problem that may arise. Not only do his people depend on him for guidance, management has also entrusted him with this responsibility. Aside from these, he must also be able to exemplify and act-out what he expects from his staff. A good manager sets and more importantly, lives up to the standards. Moreover, being the liaison between management and employees, it is imperative that a manager knows the needs of his people, and what keeps them satisfied and fulfilled in their jobs. Striving to maintain a healthy level of employee morale is no easy task but one that a manager must also focus on. A good manager then should also be approachable as the position may require mediating between management and the workforce. Building good camaraderie requires that a manager be patient and sincere in his efforts. A very stressful role Ã¢â¬â thus having a good sense of humor never hurts. A good manager has the ability to develop employee skills and improve their morale. He must know how to motivate and obtain loyalty, which is necessary in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ever-changing organizations. Organizational Change Heraclitus once said that nothing is permanent but change. This could not be truer in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s organizations especially with the rapid emergence of an international and global economy. Any organization must learn to thrive and be flexible to meet the ever-changing demands in order to survive. Change has become such an everyday occurrence and an integral part of any companyÃ¢â¬â¢s life; so much so that employees who are not receptive to such changes can weigh down managementÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts for growth. Numerous studies have been done on why people, most often than not, resist even the most well-conceived plans of change. Especially in an organization, resistance and skepticism are the most common employee reactions. The negative responses may be because of the possibility of loss, fear of the unknown and disruption of what has become a habit. One common reason of resistance to change is that an individual feels the possibility of a loss Ã¢â¬â loss of something he values that may result from change. Most often, changes in an organization are structural Ã¢â¬â they affect job status, lead to additional responsibilities and impose new reporting structures. Restructuring may also require physical relocation and in worse scenario, job termination. With all of these possibilities, imaginary or real they may be, it is but a natural instinct for an employee to reject change. Another reason for resisting change is fear. It is an inherent trait in humans to fear the unknown, the uncertain. Any uncertain situation is never welcome and an individual will avoid having to face such situations as much as possible. With any organizational change, an employee may fear that he may not be capable to meet the demands in the future. He resists because he feels that he does not have the competencies needed for him to function in the new structure. He becomes afraid thus, the negative response even to the most well-meaning plans of change. One other reason why people reject change is that they have become accustomed to and feel more comfortable with the current practice. It has become a force of habit. Many people think things are already fine and do not see the need for change or believe that it is the solution to whatever problem is at hand. Employees may also resist change because they have to learn something new. In many cases, people are reluctant to leave the familiar behind especially if it entails learning something new and presents the risks of failing. A Good Manager in the Face of Organizational Change At one point, I also had to face and deal with an organizational change. The Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company I was with decided to concentrate on his other affairs and relinquish his post. His successor, though no less brilliant, is in many ways very different on how things are done and how objectives are met. Their priorities and ways in achieving the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision were very much opposing. This move greatly affected our team since we report and were directly under the CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s office. Our team had to take on new responsibilities, transfer some functions to another team and report to a new management team Ã¢â¬â changing almost everything our team has been used to. The recent movement in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management forced every member of the team to learn to adjust fast but still maintain the same level of efficiency and effectiveness. It is an understatement to say that everyone was on a very high stress level. Most were uncertain of their future and status in the company and wondered whether they will keep their job or would have to be laid-off. It was a very good thing that our manager knew how to handle those changes and helped made things easier to deal with. In the context of organizational change, in order to facilitate a smooth implementation, it is very important that a good manager anticipate and plan well his approach to the possibility of a negative reception. A good manager has to properly communicate the details of the change and make the employees see the need to do things differently. A good manager must inspire and challenge his team to embrace such changes, since a positive and supportive environment yields a more productive and a more committed workforce. Recognizing a staffÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions to the organization is fundamental and very important in inspiring employees. Keeping the employee motivated entails various skills, as there are various personalities involved. No one formula can ever be arrived at as to how to motivate employees especially in a dynamically- changing organization, but developing an honest and open relationship is a start. Giving regular, positive, and constructive criticism can also help create an encouraging environment and help boost an employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ sense of being valued. There are some companies that provide monetary rewards or incentives as a way of showing their appreciation to their personnel. However, this could be very costly and the rewards may quickly be forgotten. This is why this practice must be exercised prudently and must not be the only way of motivating employees. Financial incentives may seem to be the most notable form of motivation but may also cause disadvantages to the company in the long-term. Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The need for an efficient and effective manager is one issue that all organizations face. Managers not only play a vital part in the realization of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals but also influence the employees, hence, becoming an even more critical part in the business. Every organization must change in order to improve and cope with increasing industry competition. However, whether the factors prompting such moves may be external or internal, every organization must be able to address any consequence that may arise. Needless to say, employees also play an equally vital role in any organization. Thus, in the context of organizational change, one of the most central, albeit complex consequences is the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ response. Being the workforce that keeps the organization alive, it is very important for a good manager to acknowledge the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ significance and value; and to show that they are an integral part of the company. Ultimately, any company has much to gain by empowering and recognizing the value of its members. This is why efforts must be taken by a good manager to foster loyalty and keep them motivated in the face of change. In conclusion, let us keep in mind the words of Charles Darwin Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.Ã¢â¬
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
The Alignment of Emerging Technologies with Businesses - Research Paper Example The role of managers is clearly stated in the alignment process, citing various articles from journals on information technology. Ã Alignment is stated as a process which is supposed to be flexible in order to allow amendments to suit the changing business environment. Consumer needs are of utmost importance and are described as vital in the planning process. Other role players in the business enterprise are also given priority in the planning process. The time factor is also portrayed as very important for alignment in order for a business to reap maximum benefits from a business enterprise. Many businesses are facing the challenge of managing information in order to get maximum output. Managers have the obligation of ensuring information gathering, analysis and dissemination are successful in business. This forms the backbone of any enterprise. In order for a business to thrive, managers need to adopt the information technology that can assist them to achieve their goals. According to Paul A. Strassmann, "aligning information systems to corporate goals has emerged as the number one concern over the last five years in surveys of information systems executives". Aligning information technology with business is establishing a constructive connection between a business and tools of information technology in order to augment performance. Most of the consumers of industrial products prefer services which help sustain expenditure that is in line with their preferences. Consumers' preference is of utmost importance in the business industry. Businesses in a competitive market try to ensure that up-and-coming technologies are utilized before other competitors put them in to use. These are normally aimed at adding value to their product before any other player in the business field adapts to the new technology and that which increases production or sales volume. Many businesses tend to carry out market research in order to establish customers' needs. Most of the customers expect better products from their suppliers every day. It is therefore important that the management teams of various business enterprises ensure that they introduce commodities of a higher value each time in order to retain their consumers. An industry that is able to satisfy the needs of its customers builds confidence in them. Most businesses fail in alignment due to their ignorance of the roles of the information technology experts and business experts. As much as it is an information technology issue, the business aspect is of major concern. Without the business aspect, there exists no avenue for alignment. It is the business managers who decide when and why to venture in alignment. It is routine in most cases for managers to combine business experts with information technology technicians. This ensures that the business needs are catered for by business experts while the information technology field is left for the experts. ' Ã
Unit 1 Individual Project - Essay Example This encompasses the specific allocation of goods for individuals and households. For an individual, it can be as simple as choosing the activity for the day. For a business organization, it includes the setting of the price level for a product or service and finding the equilibrium quantity which can maximize the profit to be generated. Macroeconomics, on the other hand, is more comprehensive as it involves the examination of the performance of the economy as a whole. Instead of simply looking at a single business organization, this means focusing on the entire industry taking into account all industry players regardless of size or bargaining power (Cybereconomics 2008). An example of the macroeconomics is the determination of the factors which causes the increase in the Gross Domestic Production of China which has showed significant growth in the recent years. Being the vice president for sales for a reputable business organization, I am responsible for the purchasing decision for the company. At other times, I also handle the recruitment and application processing for prospective employees. These tasked have allowed me to utilize microeconomics in making my decisions. The purchase of input for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operation has a lot of implication for the price of the product that we manufacture and in turn, the level of profit that we generate. Employing the skills and techniques that I have learned in microeconomics, I always make sure that I am buying inputs at the lowest possible cost which includes minimizing the cost per item, cost of ordering, and cost of handling the inventory. I make use of the economic quantity model which really helped our business organization maximize profits by the elimination of unwanted cost. The macroeconomics portion concerns my task in hiring prospective applicants. When searching for the right person for the job, I look beyond the knowledge and the skill of the candidate and also look at the people working for
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Anatomy and Physiology - Essay Example The woman was diagnosed with Gouty arthritis. The main symptom that was use to identify this disease was the swelling and the speed of onset as well as the target bones. But most importantly are the inflammation and the fact that only one toe was affected. When the woman was asked whether she has suffered from the symptoms earlier she said that she recalled a similar attack two years earlier that had disappeared as suddenly as it had come. While Gouty arthritis is faster and takes place within hours, it can be relieved by the body systems. . Another symptom is that the pain was only on the right toe which is typical for Gouty Arthritis. Gouty Arthritis affects the toes, Knees, ankles and elbows. As stated by (Loue, & Sajatovic, 2008), Gouty Arthritis symptoms often affect one side of the body limited to one side of the joint. This is different from other types of arthritis in which symptoms are symmetrical and for the case of this woman, would have affected both right and left toes. It is harmful for a growing 13 year old to include lifting heavy weights as part of his daily workout because of the severe consequences that it poses it his growth. As stated by Brown et al (2009), children are born with cartilages at the end of each and every long bone. The end of the bone is where new structures are formed thus allowing growth to take place. During growth and as individuals grow older, these cartilages grow narrower until such a time that physical maturity is attained and thus they are completely replaced by bones thus a person starts growing in height. Heavy weight lifting my teenagers is likely to damage these growth plates since they are much softer than the bones. The consequence of damaged plates is that the growth of these teenagers may be impaired or stop completely depending on the nature and the extent of plate injury (Brown et al, 2009). Apart from the risk of growth plate
Monday, August 26, 2019
Medicine administration - Essay Example He needs to be in school, not at home taking care of a terminally ill patient. Michael lacks the skills needed to take care of a patient suffering from ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. He is also too young to cope with the challenges that come with taking care of a person suffering from this disease (Tuite, 2009). The work might be emotionally draining and Michael might not know how to handle this. He has not been trained to deal with medical conditions; therefore, he might not know how to handle his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s medication (Chemecky, Infortuna and Macklin, 2006). Sometimes, it is hard to administer drugs to persons suffering from ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease, and since Michael is not a trained medicine administrator, he might not know what to do in this situation. Michael should not be allowed to administer drugs to his mother by himself. Since his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s condition is very serious, she needs advanced level medications which can only be administered by a professional, which Mich ael is not. According to the law, only simple drugs such as paracetamols can be administered at home. There are age restrictions for drug administration at home. For some medications, the age limit can be anywhere from 13 years (Tuite, 2009).
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Global Marketing - Assignment Example As such, this memorandum will outline specific key tactics that shall be used in order to create a robust marketing strategy. Making 100 percent increase in sales revenue is no mean feat meaning various facets of the marketing mix will require to be addressed in order to achieve this goal. The marketing research exercise will seek to gather information on economic and demographic data, cultural and sociological data, overview of market conditions, level of awareness of the Mayo Clinic, reputation of Mayo Clinic and attractiveness of Mayo clinic internationally. Economic and demographic data shows data on growth and statistics in the health industry, analysis of stability of economies and how it influences the health decisions of the target markets and population trends. Cultural and sociological data provide insight into the ecological, climate history of common diseases, eating habits and their potential impact on insurance coverage and clinic choice. Finally, overview of market conditions involves analysis of the level of technology including internet knowledge in the target market, level of proficiency in resident clinics, level of health mindfulness and insurance coverage inclinations. Mayo clinic, as a brand should be in a position to exude exceptional qualities that will attract people around the world. Since its humble beginnings, nearly a hundred years, the founders of Mayo clinic sought to create an international legacy by traveling around the globe. In their expeditions, they compared notes and surgical methods with other physicians around the world in order to increase or change expertise. Mayo clinic continues in these traditions as in so many other areas of medical practice. Mayo clinic is focused on delivering exceptional care that recognizes no limits. Mayo clinic currently seeks to establish and position itself as the best service provider based in knowledge and superior care. Mayo clinic also prides itself on being multi-lingual,
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Japan and the Pacific Rim - Essay Example Overall, Japan is considered a good place to do business because of its relatively stable economy and friendly local people. The Japanese economy has now slipped behind China in terms of GDP, although it is still considered a large economic force within Asia and the world as a whole. China is a strange case because their governmental systems and economic choices do not necessarily match up. The Chinese government is very strictly Communist, although over the last couple of decades, the ruling party has seen the need to bring about capitalist reform in order to propel China to become an economic superpower. Today, China has a great deal of political clout in such organizations as the United Nations because of its tremendous size. Other countries have picked up on this and realize how important trade can be with China. As such, many countries choose not to go against many Chinese economic decisions. China was not always the way it is today though. After China fell to the Communists in 1949, Mao Zedong led China through an era that ultimately proved unsuccessful. Millions of people died of starvation through ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s eccentric Communist policies. It took a long time for those in power in China to realize that capitalism may be a better option for a number of reasons. Korea used to be unified as one country; however, due to the Korean War in the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, there is the Communist-backed North and the Democratic South. The economic differences between these two neighbors are vast and it can be put down to the difference between Communism and capitalism. The North Korean government is extremely secretive and rarely releases information to the outside world. On the other hand, South Korea can be considered as one of the success stories of Asia. In the late 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s, after the end of the Korean War, South KoreaÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy rate was extremely high in conjunction with a very low average GDP per capita. It took a vast amount of modernization and new technology
Friday, August 23, 2019
Church Reformation in the 16th and 17th century - Essay Example This compromised the respect accorded to papacy2. Since the schism tarnished the reputation of the papacy authority, it needed a resolution that would re-unite the people. Before the schism, the Catholic Church relied on a centralized Roman leadership. This paper will analyze the decrees that resulted from the emergence of the council of Constance. The issues that led to the schism in the Catholic Church included disputes concerning power and jurisdiction concerning matters3. The rise of English and French monarchies affected the papal authority. Things worsened after the election of the Urban the sixth. This happened in Rome and Urban proved to be extremely brutal forcing most of the other clergy to move back to Avignon where papacy had reigned before4. After their return to Avignon, they went ahead to elect a pope of their own bringing about a great controversy5. The Catholic Church devotees had two popes in power exercising control over the church.6 The division that emerged threa tened to challenge the papacy powers. Different countries opted to support one of the two popes. Haec Sancta: Decree of the Council of Constance, 1415 Majority of the people opined that a council had the capacity to solve the controversy that was proving a threat to the unity of the church7. Although both popes portrayed reluctance to call upon the help of the council in solving the matter, a council came into place to propose solutions for the problem that was prevailing in the Catholic Church. The decree Ã¢â¬Ëhaec SanctaÃ¢â¬â¢ declared by the council changed the entire picture of the competition that had resulted from different individuals claiming to have papal authority. The council of Constance was acting as one of the ecumenical councils that had existed in the past of the Catholic Church8. The council introduced the conciliar ideology that was to give rise to additional controversies in the future. The conciliar ideology was of the standing that the councils of the Cathol ic Church held a supreme position. This implied that no clergy was above the council. The pope had a responsibility of recognizing the authority of the council and obeying it. Therefore, the council of Constance made it clear that it held the exquisite authority to resolve the schism that the church was facing9. In accordance, the council disregarded the authority of the competing popes that had resulted from the schism. The council held the reasoning that electing a different individual altogether would restore the unity that had once existed in the church. In addition, the council sought to restore the centrality of power that had existed in papacy. In the decree, the council made it clear that the constitution of t he council was part of the Holy SpiritÃ¢â¬â¢s doing. In addition, the council claimed that it had power directed to them from Christ himself. The council then expressed its expectation for every individual regardless of state and dignity to accept the solution it had designed to resolve the schism that prevailed. In addition, the council instituted a second decree concerning the future activities of the council. From 1415 to 1417, the council held sessions that led to critical decisions. The council that was headed by Sigismund as the emperor10. It exercised supremacy in all its decisions, expecting nobody to raise the question of discontent11. The council appointed a new pope, Martin the fifth, restoring the papal authority to Rome12. Council of Constance: Frequens, 1417
Thursday, August 22, 2019
How Mentoring Supports Essay Mentoring is probably as old as humanity. Though we cannot exactly trace its beginnings, we can however, see its effects on different prominent personalities in our histories and in both our fiction and non-fiction stories. It is said that behind every wise and great man is a mentor that share with him the basic knowledge and information during his formative years which eventually flourish in to a deeply rooted wisdom and intelligence. Thus, on this premise, we can say that mentoring plays a crucial and very important role in our lives but what really is mentoring? Mentoring is when a role model or a mentor who has more knowledge and experience offers support to another person who is called the mentee or the protege (McBrien, J. L. , Brandt, R. S. 1997: 64). It is a process which supports learning and development of another person; more specifically it is a one on one meeting to support the learner in their desire to improve their personal situation in life (Marslow P. , Wray M. 2000: 81-82). Scholarly interest on the role of mentoring in adult development is often traced to LevinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s seminal study of human development which he found to be dominantly affected or influenced greatly by mentors. A mentor therefore is often described as a guide, a counselor and developer of skills who facilitates the realization of a dream, of a vision that one has of the sort of life he wants (Allen, T. ,Eby, L. T 2007: 8-10). A successful mentor however, is not made overnight, just like any beginners, a mentor also, once in his life, also becomes a mentee or the protege. A common example of this is a novice teacher. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a common notion that teachers are always the mentors, always the one who counsel, always the one who guide another person, but a closer look into reality will let us know that teachers themselves in educational institutions needs also to be mentored in order to be effective and even survived their profession. It is often said that student achievement and the effectiveness of a school in training students is linked to the quality of teachers that such educational institutions employ. Thus, guidance and development through mentoring finds its ways as a very important tool in developing educators especially the beginning or novice teachers. Mentoring movement for beginning teachers are said to be guided with two school of thoughts, to wit: the first one is the idea that beginning teachers are at risk in terms of their career and personal development in the profession. Thus, unless timely support is provided, many beginning teachers will face difficulty in settling down, becoming disenchanted and some may even leave teaching altogether (Ginns, et al. 2001). The second school of thought pertains to the ongoing capacity building as an important feature of any learning community where a continuous reflection-in-action, performance feedback and improvement should form an integral protocol for all teachers as professionals (DET Induction of Teachers 2001). This school of thoughts may indeed differ in their principles and idea but it has one similar aim, that is, to support the beginning or the novice teachers in their profession as educators. To be more particular on how mentoring can support the professional learning of the teachers, it is proper to discuss all aspects which mentoring can have a great effect, to wit: the personal development, emotional and psychological development, social development and career development. Mentoring can greatly effect the personal development of a beginning teacher inasmuch as the mentor will make the beginning teachers build his or her principles in the profession as well as his beliefs, capabilities and aspiration. Mentoring encourage development of self-awareness by showing how self assessment can help in his or her personal development. A novice teacher will often feel lost in his or her first year in the profession, thus making the novice teacher feel uneasy in showing and expressing his beliefs, his ideas or if his abilities will match the requirements of the teaching profession. This kind of doubting behavior as to himself and as to his principles and beliefs will more often than not lead to a shallow and empty dark hall of self doubt which of course will not help the beginning teacher to grow and be developed. Here is where mentoring should come in. In this stage, a mentor through his advice, company and simply his listening skills will make the novice teacher to develop self-confirmation and self-confidence as well as his confidence to express and stand on his or her beliefs. It is worthy taking note to that saying that the higher level of confidence, awareness and self-esteem will more often results to a higher learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation to seize learning opportunities and to take responsibilities for improving their levels of excellence and performance. In terms of emotional and psychological development, mentoring can help the beginning teachers adapt and adjust their feelings and attitude towards his or her new environment. Beside the new environment that confronts the novice teacher, the everyday dilemma and uncertainties will surely frustrate any beginning teachers. With the limited experience and practical knowledge to drag on, the novice teacher often feels uncertain and at the same time overwhelmed. Clearly, providing support to beginning teachers is better than letting them sink or swim on their own. Studies of teacher attrition show that without support, new teachers will more likely to leave teaching. Mentoring in answering this type of problem associated with the psychological and emotional being of the novice teacher will play a Ã¢â¬Å"form of therapeutic guidanceÃ¢â¬ (Scherer : pp. 4-8). Mentoring the novice teacher through giving on-the spot advices on times which they are considered vulnerable will amounts to a good counseling where the mentor addresses issues like stress, everyday workplace dilemma and even frustrations that may build along the way. Battling these emotional and psychological struggles through support from a mentor is very important in the formative years of the beginning teachers as this will help decide the latter from deciding whether to stick in the profession or just leave it altogether. Mentoring also contributes to the social development of the beginning teachers. Beginning teachers often find themselves alone in the new environment and if state like this continuous to go on in the whole career of the novice teacher, more often than not, the said teacher will find himself withdrawn in the society. Thus, mentoring will help the novice teacher develops his inter-personal skills. Building rapport and friendship are considered important traits of an educator as he is constantly reaching and interacting either with his students and even his or her co-teachers. Mentoring therefore will promote friendship between the beginning teacher and the mentor and subsequently to the whole faculty where he or she can interact and exchange ideas with his colleagues. In the book authored by Stephen Gordon, How to help Beginning Teachers Succeed, it was said that the most significant force in their experience was the peer and support of their mentor. The said peer or support was typically rated as highly influential early in the formative years and increasingly influential as the years progressed (20-21). Thus, the support rendered in during the formative years of the beginning teacher is the most important factor in the development of the career of the novice teacher as this instilled support will always served as a post or a mark in their road to professional growth. Laslty, mentoring is a tool in the development of the novice teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s career. It is settled that mentoring involves a relationship between a less experience individual or the protege and the more experience person or the mentor where the primary purpose is the professional growth and development of the protege. Considering that the main purpose of mentoring is for growth and development, it will therefore be a tool which will prepare the novice teacher for career advancement. It is for this reason that mentoring is often referred to as the indoctrination of the novice teacher in the professional field of teaching and this relationship, in itself can have profound effects of these beginning teachers to have a clear and realistic picture of his or her professional identity and career plans. Because mentors are often more experienced in the field of teaching and thus, equipped with more knowledge and wisdom, mentoring can therefore be an effective tool in the transmission of distilled wisdom from one generation to another (Bhindi 2003) After all, it is said that great learning and wisdom are not always written in the text books, first hand experience and theories that have been tested by the mentors are the greatest learning that a beginning teacher will have in his or her professional career. Mentoring therefore may be considered as interactive cycle of learning, affirming, renewing, creating and transforming knowledge experience and expertise. It is now settled that a novice teacher needs mentoring in their formative years of their career. The contributions and effects of mentoring not only shows advantages that can be present in the short span of time but rather, mentoring is showing more advantages that can be seen for an even longer period of time. It is during this mentoring stage where the novice teacher determines his capacities, his knowledge and abilities which he will now pass to the younger generation through his teaching profession. As earlier stated, the quality of education is determined to the quality of teachers an educational institution employs, thus, mentoring therefore should not be taken for granted or taken lightly because it is through proper mentoring that will determine the quality of education our future children will have. List of References Bindhi, N. 2003 Study Guide EDGL 919 Mentoring Beginning Teachers, University of Wallongong. Ginns, I. , Heirdsfield, A. Atneh, B. and Waters J. J 2001 Beginning Teachers Becoming Professional Tthrough ActionResearch, Educational Action Research, Volume 9. Gordon, S. How to help Beginning Teachers Succeed, Second Edition, pp. 20-21. NWS Department of Education and Training (DET) 2001 Induction of Teachers Ã¢â¬â Module 21: Working as a Mentor. McBrien, J. L. , Brandt, R. S. 1997 The Language of Learning: A Guide to Education Terms, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, p. 64. Parslow P. , Wray, M. 2000 Coaching and Mentoring, Kogan Page, pp. 81-82. Scherer, M. 1999 A Better Beginning: Supporting and Mentoring New Teachers ACSD, p. 4-8.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Management Information System Essay The ten major domestic carriers in the United States reported revenue of 145. 3 billion dollars in 2012, according to data gathered by Airlines for America (2012). The combine market capitalization of the twelve largest and publicly traded airlines stood at 48 billion dollars as of April 2012 just four billion greater than the value of Starbucks and way below other companies like Facebook and eBay ( Airlines for America, 2012). Our research will give a detail analysis of the two theories developed by Harvard Business School Professor Michael Porter. Porter posited that in order for businesses to compete an in-depth analysis should be done not only of your direct competitors but also external forces that can help a business performance; Porter labelled this as the Five Forces of Competitive Strategy. Another concept developed by Porter was the Value Chain, the Value Chain breaks the business process into two groups, Porter argues that business should analyse the areas of the Value Chain to see where improvements can be made to enhance performance. Our report will show how Southwest Airlines uses Information system in Porters theories and concept to gain competitive advantage Introduction to Southwest Airlines According to information received from Southwest. com (2013), Southwest Airline was incorporated in 1971 by co-founders Rollin King and Herb Kelleher as Air Southwest Company. The company is based in Dallas, Texas and has a staff capacity of over 46,000 persons. The carrier was formed has a low cost domestic carrier originally only flying in the state of Texas before branching out to other US states. From inception Southwest policy business strategy was to offer low fare and conveniently times flights on short haul routes (Ross Beath, 2007). Today Southwest Airlines flies domestic in the United States to 79 cities. Southwest Airlines is the largest airline in the world by passengers carried, in 2012 over 100 million persons was transported by the airline to different cities in the USA. The airline has being a pioneer in the industry and is credited for setting the foundation for the rise of other low cost carriers across the world like Ryan Air and Easyjet. In an industry where profit margins are very low and different carriers filing for bankruptcy ever so often Southwest has managed to stay above the fray. In almost 40 years of service the airline has consistently turned a profit while other airlines have struggled and has remained one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most profitable airlines. The airlineÃ¢â¬â¢s consistent profitability was due to its own ability of low cost on a set per mile basis due to its use of a single aircraft model the Boeing 737 and its fuel hedging program that protect the company from rising fuel prices (Ross Beath, 2007). Southwest Airlines commands a market capitalization of over nine billion dollars making it one of the most valuable airlines in the world. Southwest credited its success for building a philosophy of simplicity, the company offering of low cost fares kept attracting passengers while its high touch customer service kept them coming back (Ross Beath, 2007). As the airline grew and its business processes became more complex and with other airlines investing heavily in technology in order to survive SouthwestÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO at the time realised that a solid IT infrastructure would be essential for the company to achieve its strategic goals and could lower the airline cost without compromising on customer service (Ross Beath, 2007). Porters Five Force Model for Competitive Strategy PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Force Model was developed by Michael Porter, Professor at the Harvard Business School in 1979. According to Porter (1979) the Five Forces is a holistic approach of looking and analysing any industry to understand the structural underlining drivers of profitability and competition. Porter believes that industry players take too much of a narrow look in assessing competition by believing that direct competitors in an industry are the only ones that are important. He uses the five forces model to show how business are engaged in a broader form of competition that can affect their profitability. These broader forces of competition include customers and suppliers who can have certain bargaining powers, new entrants that can emerge in the industry and affect your market share, substitute products or services that can be used and can have a direct effect on your profitability or growth and direct industry rivalry and competition within the industry. According to Hills Jones (2008) a businessÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to earn great profits are dependent on the strength of Porters Five Forces, the reverse is also true that a weak competitive force allows for a greater opportunity to make profits. For example, a company that controls a monopoly in a certain geographical area will see greater opportunities for profit, because being a monopoly will eliminate the threat of new entrants, no internal rivalry and low bargaining power of consumers. The greatest issue most businesses will have is to identify changes in the five forces and knowing how to formulate strategies from the opportunities and threats that may arise from the change (Hill Jones, 2008). The image below illustrates PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Force Model. Fig. 1 Source: (Porter, 1979) Threats of Entry in the Airline Industry The domestic airline industry in the United States has intense rivalry between its competitors. Over ten airlines fight for market share with the rivalry completely driven on price. Southwest Airline faces some its greatest competition from fellow low cost airlines such as Spirit air and JetBlue all three compete against each other on direct routes trying to offer the lowest prices and the best service to passengers with very low profit margins. Passenger figures stand at approximately 450 million passengers travelling domestic annually in the United States (International Air Transport Association, 2012). However, Southwest Airlines remained the dominant domestic carrier with a passenger load of over 100 million 2012 (Southwest Airlines, 2012). The competitive nature of the domestic market in the United States has led to the merger of some of its carriers in order to consolidate costs. The most recent merger being that of American Airlines and US Airways and before that it was Continental and United Airlines who joined forces. Barriers to Entry in the Airline Industry Prior to 1978 the airline industry in America was heavily regulated by the United States government and was driven by high prices and empty airlines. Government regulation not only prevented competition among industry players but also created an entry barrier for new airlines, as government regulated routes presented a monopoly for established carriers (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). In the United States the state of Texas was the only state which never had government regulation in the industry. The deregulation in Texas gave Southwest Airlines an opportunity to enter the market offering its service in the major cities of Texas only (Southwest Airlines, 2012). The deregulation effort that was led by democratic senator Ted Kennedy and signed into law by former President Jimmy Carter saw a dismantling of fare and route controls in 1978 (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). This deregulation made it increasingly easy for new airlines to enter market and compete. With government control no longer a barrier airlines were able to enter the market once they were able to access the capital that was required and meet the safety standards that were required by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA). However, Michael Porter (2008) in an interview with Harvard Business School described the airline industry as one of the easiest enter with low barriers to entry he pointed out there is a constant stream of new airlines that enter the market regularly despite low profits. Bargaining Power of Suppliers and Customers in the Airline Industry According to Porter (2008) the limited number of suppliers in the airline industry gave a considerable amount of power to the ones that existed. Porter argues that airline suppliers made considerable more profits than airlines themselves. Aircraft manufacturing is dominated by only two major players,Ã¢â¬â¢ American company Boeing and French company Airbus. In 2011 both manufactures controlled over 90 per cent of new air craft orders with Airbus dominating at 64 percent (The Guardian, 2012). An airline survival in the industry is also tied considerably to the price of oil which is core to operation. Southwest Airlines use a method of hedging to compete on the price of oil which allows the airline to lock in to contracts at cheaper prices in anticipation of future rises in the world market prices (CNBC, 2012). Other supplier cost that affects performance includes security cost, airport gates and terminal fees and wages to staff. The greater the rivalry among industry players the more fickle customers will become. Customers in the airline industry have tremendous bargaining power and are very price sensitive. The fast pace nature of the industry can allow a customer to switch airlines at any time. Customers were the key beneficiaries from the deregulation of the industry, before the removal of price structure and other regulation, government policy ensured that airlines competed on service and not price (Bloomberg Business Week, 2011). This shifted dramatically with deregulation has new entrants to the markets like Southwest and JetBlue built their business model on low prices which has caused older established companies to lower their own margins. Substitutes Products for Airlines There are a number of substitute services available in the domestic airline industry in America. Substitute products include rail service, water, coaches, private car transportation or refusing to travel. These substitutes provide customers with other alternatives other than flying and are strong competitive forces to the industry. Airlines are therefore forced to show the economical convenience of air travel as oppose to using other means. For example a person travelling on business who places great value on time could find it more efficient to fly instead of using substitutes. Airfares offered by low cost airlines like Southwest are also competitive with other substitute products. The Value Chain Analysis Along with the Five Forces Michael Porter also developed the Generic Value Chain as a means of understanding competitiveness in the business industry. The Value Chain is aimed at helping us understand how goods and services move through an organization and how value is added to them. According to Porter the Value Chain represents a business process that comes along with a product (Porter, 1985). The main aim has articulated by Porter (1985) is to find sources for a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage by dividing the company into several activities in the business process which are all strategically relevant to the goods or services provided. The business process is divided into primary and secondary areas. Primary activities include areas directly related to getting the product to the consumer. Inbound logistics is the acquisition of the raw materials that are necessary to provide the product or service. Southwest inbound logistics include areas such as route selection, flight and crew scheduling, fuelling, acquiring aircrafts and ticket management systems. Operation generally refers to the physical actions that are required to produce the service once all the raw materials are acquired. Southwest Airlines operations include a variety of actions to provide its service. It covers the airlines customer care services, gate operations, air craft operations and maintenance and baggage handling. Outbound logistics involves moving goods into inventory and places where they can reach customers. Southwest Airlines outbound logistics includes website for booking tickets, connecting passengers on flights, offering, baggage collection systems and other gate services. Other areas Primary agents of the value chain include marketing and sales and services. Marketing and sales involves the initiation of buying the product by utilizing advertising, promoting and monitoring sales (Porter, 1985). Therefore any advertising, promotional activity or deals and incentives offered by the airline will fall under marketing and sales activities. While service involves handling of customer relations once the product or service is in the hand of the consumer these include handling customer complaints, handling special request from customers such as disability requests or dealing with elements such as flight delays and cancellations. The secondary activities are important in creating a product or service but are not directly involved in its creation. Procurement is responsible for buying the raw materials for the company it can include computers furnisher and other fix assets which are essential to the value chain, the act of procurement according to Porter is normally carried out by management or the sales department (Porter, 1985). Technology support activity includes research and development that could lead to product development for the primary areas of the value chain, human resources role provides the company with essential staff to carry out functions while infrastructure involves the processes and procedures needed to execute the business process for example payroll and account (Porter, 1985). The purpose of this process is to analyse all the aspects of the Value Chain and determine if improvements can be made to increase the profitability and performance of the business. For example, Southwest Airlines could look at a value chain and determine if they could reduce the speed at which it check in passengers to flights to reduce turnaround time or increasing the speed of operating procedures such as maintenance and refuelling. Value Chain is a structured way to look at improving the business process and information systems can play a key role in this effort.
Ways To Overcome Your Weaknesses English Language Essay Everyone have their own skills. Skills are the ability to do something well. If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Personal Strengths and Weaknesses. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Personal Strengths and Weaknesses paper right on time. The purpose of this paper is to clearly define each of my strengths and weaknesses and figure out a way to identify my personal strengths and weaknesses. In order for me to improve myself and enhance my learning process. I also believe realizing my strengths and weaknesses will help me to become more self-conscious and a well-rounded individual. MAIN BODY Strength My strength is I will do the work whatever is given to me and I finish as quickly as possible. Time Management, Flexible, Organiser and Open minded. I am always positive attitude for every work whatever is given to me and I do that work patiently. I have ability to do the hard work and the perfect work. Any where I can make friends easily. My strength is Dedication. If I begin to do a work I would never go anywhere without completion of the work. I am hardworking, self-motivated, cooperative and can easily adopt to any environment, use to be confident even when I was broken, have good understanding power. My strengths are that I believe in myself and I am self-motivated. I am always dedicated to my work and completed confidently what types of works have given me. Weakness My weakness is I do believe in people easily specially those who put me into troubles. I feel inferior to others when I am not able to accomplish certain things personally speaking such as to become successful in my career and or not be able to build my own ideas. I am not an easy learner and sometimes feel inferior to others. I feel uncomfortable until I finish my work, I am over ambitious person, I am extravagant person. I have short temper. I can easily believe others, very feel not done my work. I sometimes over think on matters that delays my decision, Sometimes I hesitate in expressing myself. I cant unhappy more time, I dont nervous if any person told me my weak point. I am too friendly with a person which sometime puts me in trouble and because of that I faced lots of problems in my past. How to Overcome Weaknesses Overcoming your weaknesses may seem impossible, but it is not. People do it every day. You have probably overcome many weaknesses and not really even noticed it. Moving past your shortcomings requires that you love yourself enough to nurture yourself. If you had a friend who needed help and assistance, physically, emotionally, or mentally, you would go to that friend in an instant. Now, you must move toward the view thatÃ you are a friend of yours, too, and you must go to yourself sometimes for nurturing. It is always a much more rewarding task to increase positive qualities than reduce negative ones. If you lose your temper easily, you can focus on increasing your inner calmness. If you are prone to criticise others, try and increase the number of good things you see in everyone you meet. Working on positive goals turns the situation around from a struggle with the enemy within to a process of inner growth and blossoming. CONCLUSION The process of human improvement is not like instant coffee, or a miracle pill. There are ups, there are downs, and there are times you wonder if you are any better than when you started. Yet bear in mind that anything we did that ever brought us a feeling of joy and satisfaction, only came because we committed to it and saw it through to the end. Unlearn your weakness and use them as stepping stones to greater strengths. Start finding ways to turn your weakness into strengths. There is no weakness in people they are only the choices, because you have allowed those choices. QUESTION According to Confucius, you can lead horse to water but you cannot make it drink. In the real life situation as a student, how would you drive yourself to have passion in study? INTRODUCTION Passion is the energy that comes from bringing more of YOU into what you do. Simply put, its being who you are and doing what comes naturally. When what you do is in alignment with who you are, you get energy from doing it. Its like water flowing along its natural riverbed. It actually gains energy from the path its taking (compare that to what most people experience in their work, which is more like trying to force it up and over a mountain). Reading activity is a complex process. Reading involves a process of communication between readers and writers through writing resources. MAIN BODY Regardless of what ones motivation gain performance, they always in common that is, have an abundance of energy, daring to face the challengers and great ambition to be created. Thats why many experts think that the success of behavior is attitude. One of the factor that course a person to continue to be vigilant performance gain is the ability to infuse his passion for performing. Here are some tips to infuse the spirit. They are two factors that make a person get motivated to learn they are: First, the motivation to learn comes from internal factors. Motivation is formed due to self-awareness on the understanding of the importance of learning to develop itself and what it means to live your life. Second, the motivation to learn from external factor, that could be a stimulus from another, or the surrounding environment can affect that individual psychological. Socialize with people who are keen to learn. Ever heard of the right analogy friends with artisan blacksmith or seller of perfumes. If we get along with artisan blacksmith, then we went into smell burnt iron, and if mixing with perfume seller, we also will smell that sweet perfume. Familiarity and enthusiasm will spread to us. Socialize with people easily learn and performance, will make us even like to learn. In addition, try to find people or communities which have a good habit of studying. Ask about the experience in a variety places to those who have or are currently pursuing studies at the higher levels, the people with scholarship study abroad or those who gets the credit for a performance. Next is, learn anything means learn here understood broadly, whether formal or non-formal. We can learn about a variety of computer skills such as rafting, learn to write, make films, studying entrepreneurship and others. Furthermore, learn from the internet. We can leverage the internet to join then group of people that can be easily learned. One of our list will provide a space to exchange ideas, thoughts, and self-motivation. For example, if you want motivated to learn English, we can get into [emailprotected] mailing list. More over consort with people who are always optimistic and positive minded. In this world, there are people who always look optimistic despite problem. We will contract the spirit, passion, and senses of optimism if often socialize with people or in the community as such, and vice versa. Find motivator. Sometimes a person takes another person as a drive or a mentor in life. For example, a friend, girlfriend or spouse you too can do the same with finding a person or community that can help motivated you to learn gain performance. Learn The Understanding Not Just memorize. Yes, the main function is why we must learn to understand new things. We can memorize 100% of all subjects detail, but the more important thing is whether we are fully aware of all the memorized material. So before memorized, always endeavor to understand first the outline of the subject matter. Ability We Own Train. Actually, we can train our brains own ability. At the end of each chapter lesson, usually always given to issues of training. Without waiting for instructions from the teacher, try to answer all these questions and check the extent of our ability. If the answers do not matter in the book, try to ask the teacher. CONCLUSION In conclusion, a joint venture between the government, private organizations, and the community is very important in an attempt to foster an interest in reading among students as future heir Malaysia. No point having a regular resolution, discuss finding a solution if not conducted in a systematic and widespread. You can lead horse to water but you cannot make it drink so as a parent they will asked you to study but they cant force you to study. You they want have to effort to study.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A white flash of lightening catches the glint of frantic black eyes peering from beneath frazzled grey hair. Screaming to his assistant, the frenzied scientist paces before the lifeless body on the table; his creation. As the creaking chains raise the corpse out of the roofless laboratory, the scientistÃ¢â¬â¢s evil laugh echoes up into night sky. This scene, often replayed in old films, captures the horror of unrestricted medical research. When a person who is ill decides that it is his or her time to die, they are, in effect, playing God by taking control of human life by deciding when it should end. Sidney Hook, an octogenarian, suffered to the point of requesting, but not receiving, his own extermination. In his article, In Defense of Voluntary Euthanasia, Hook argues that euthanasia provides an easy way to end suffering. Examining the pros and cons of euthanasia and its usefulness if legalized, it is clear that there are very few benefits involved. When deat h is made a legal and easy option, it is an attempt to take full control of life and, by doing so, opening the door to more abuse than benefits. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Euthanasia is the practice of putting to death persons who have incurable, painful, or distressing diseases or handicaps. It is commonly called mercy killing. Voluntary euthanasia may occur when individuals who are incurably ill ask their physician to put them to death or the patient may ask a doctor to withhold treatment, allowing them to die more rapidly. Many opponents of euthanasia contend that too often doctors and others in the medical profession play God on operating tables and in recovery rooms. They argue that no medical professional should be allowed to decide who lives and who dies. This is true. The time when a person dies is a decision only God should make. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã On the other hand, why would anyone want to keep a person who is desiring death from making that choice? Seneca, a well-known philosopher once said, Ã¢â¬Å"The wise man will live as long as he ought, not as long as he canÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Hook 484). A considerable amount of society is in favor of euthanasia mostly because they feel that we, as free individuals, should have the right to decide for ourselves when to terminate life, especially when an individual is suffering from an incurable disease. No one wants to end up plugged into machines and wired to tubes.
Monday, August 19, 2019
The Weaker Sex in Macbeth Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth exhibits a minimum of women among its dramatis personae. And of the two involved in the drama, only one is worthy of consideration - Lady Macbeth. The witches are questionable humans, but will be treated briefly. Ã In "Macbeth as the Imitation of an Action" Francis Fergusson enlightens the reader concerning the fears weakening Lady Macbeth: Ã Ã I do not need to remind you of the great scenes preceding the murder, in which Macbeth and his Lady pull themselves together for their desperate effort. If you think over these scenes, you will notice that the Macbeths understand the action which begins here as a competition and a stunt, against reason and against nature. Lady Macbeth fears her husband's human nature, as well as her own female nature, and therefore she fears the light of reason and the common daylight world. (108) Ã Ã Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of William Shakespeare contradict the impression that the female protagonist is all strength: Ã Lady Macbeth is of a finer and more delicate nature. Having fixed her eye upon the end - the attainment for her husband of Duncan's crown - she accepts the inevitable means; she nerves herself for the terrible night's work by artificial stimulants; yet she cannot strike the sleeping king who resembles her father. Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand.Ã (792) Ã In "Memoranda: Remarks on the Character of Lady Macbeth," Sarah Siddons comments on how the feminine role of the leading lady is not a typical one as regards attitude: Ã [Macbeth] announces the King's approach; and she, insensible it should seem to all the perils which he has encountered in battle, and to all the happiness of his safe return to her, -- for not one kind word of greeting or congratulations does she offer, -- is so entirely swallowed up by the horrible design, which has probably been suggested to her by his letters, as to have forgotten both the one and the other. It is very remarkable that Macbeth is frequent in expressions of tenderness to his wife, while she never betrays one symptom of affection towards him, till, in the fiery furnace of affliction, her iron heart is melted down to softness.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Teaching - Every Day Brings Something New I started seriously thinking about what I wanted to do with my life, concerning my career, in the 11th grade. From my junior year until my first semester in college, I was certain my purpose in life was to teach. However, people I spoke with, including some family, friends, and even schoolteachers, repeatedly crushed this choice: "Why would you want to be a teacher? Don't you know how much they make? Why would you want to deal with bratty kids all day? Don't you know teaching is one of the most stressful jobs you can have?" Being the naÃ ¯ve, 17 year old that I was, I listened, and changed my career choice-3 times! I went through 2 years of computer classes to become an administrative assistant, 1 year studying law for paralegalism and 1 Ã ½ years focusing on business management. Throughout those 4 years of unfulfillment, the idea of teaching still lingered in my head. I started asking myself why I decided teaching was not for me. I discovered that even though teaching did ca rry a few negative aspects, they could never come close to the positive. For the past 5 years, I have been coaching the varsity dance team at Woodhaven High School. Although there have definitely been some difficult, stressful situations, I have found the experience very rewarding. The greatest thing about coaching is the satisfaction you feel after a student succeeds in what he or she has set out to accomplish-not only physically, but also mentally. Being a coach is more than just a 9 to 5 job. It's more than staring at a computer for 8-10 hours, not caring about the people around you or your work. This is even more apparent in teaching in a classroom 5 days a week, for as much as 7-9 hours a day. Teaching is adventurous, challenging, and exciting, because every day brings something new. As a teacher, you're not only working for a living, you are acting as a role model to every child around you. A teacher has the chance to change a child's life everyday. The main element of lifelong learning is to never stop learning. One must understand that there's no such thing as a person who knows everything.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
I recognize the advancing children physical and intellectual competence by creating learning experiences that stimulates physical, cognitive, communicative and creative growth. To advance physical and intellectual competence it is essential to the growth and development of every child to advance their physical and intellectual needs. There are numerous ways to encourage this type of development. Children are encouraged to participate in daily large motor activities to enhance physical development. One activity that they enjoy is dance children naturally love music and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing better to get their little bodies moving and shaking.One easiest ways to incorporate physically activity into both you lives is pick a few random songs at intervals throughout the day and just dance like crazy. Even just two or three song quickly add up a 10 minutes session, which is just right for your preschool aged childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attention span. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for more ways to expl ore dance which your preschool aged children, think back to silly songs and nursery rhymes of your own childhood and share those. I help children develop cognitive skills by encouraging them to hypothesize and think things out.For example the main aspects for cognitive growth can be fostered with daily activities such as stacking, sorting, observing and learning cause and effect. Coming up with cognitive activities is very easy. You can sort blocks, arranging them by size and color. You can stack object Ã¢â¬â books are great for this, you can have a treasure hunt too! For this all you need is a short and easy set of objects and a magnifying glass. I allow exploration to your childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development. In my center I help children learn, understand, and use words to communicate. One lesson that is especially effective in developing communication skill is music.Music is a great way to encourage language development. You can find a sort of preschool age songs online ca n help you in this area. You can also use I spy, and question and answer games. Anything that involves word development is good activities since children love to ask you questions. A strength of this lesson is that it incorporate children who are English as second language learners and need a good mix of repetition and new material. By incorporating songs, asking daily short conversation, quick simple things repeated daily and practice basic vocabulary every day, children will understand the lessons.Creativity is fostered throughout our classroom. Children have access to, an area and are encouraged to use various art supplies to create their own artwork. Paint, markers, pencils, crayons, oil pastels, and paper are readily available for children to freely explore. An activity I love to do where children use their imagination is designing butterflies. They combine different bodies and wings to design their own butterflies; then animate them in one of several beautiful scenes. Another example is drawing a mural. They explore line, shape, and space while arranging decorative tiles into an abstract picture. Advanced physical and intellectual competence I recognize the advancing children physical and intellectual competence by creating learning experiences that stimulates physical, cognitive, communicative and creative growth. To advance physical and intellectual competence it is essential to the growth and development of every child to advance their physical and intellectual needs. There are numerous ways to encourage this type of development. Children are encouraged to participate in daily large motor activities to enhance physical development. One activity that they enjoy is dance children naturally love music and thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing better to get their little bodies moving and shaking.One easiest ways to incorporate physically activity into both you lives is pick a few random songs at intervals throughout the day and just dance like crazy. Even just two or three song quickly add up a 10 minutes session, which is just right for your preschool aged childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s attention span. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for more ways to expl ore dance which your preschool aged children, think back to silly songs and nursery rhymes of your own childhood and share those. I help children develop cognitive skills by encouraging them to hypothesize and think things out.For example the main aspects for cognitive growth can be fostered with daily activities such as stacking, sorting, observing and learning cause and effect. Coming up with cognitive activities is very easy. You can sort blocks, arranging them by size and color. You can stack object Ã¢â¬â books are great for this, you can have a treasure hunt too! For this all you need is a short and easy set of objects and a magnifying glass. I allow exploration to your childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive development. In my center I help children learn, understand, and use words to communicate. One lesson that is especially effective in developing communication skill is music.Music is a great way to encourage language development. You can find a sort of preschool age songs online ca n help you in this area. You can also use I spy, and question and answer games. Anything that involves word development is good activities since children love to ask you questions. A strength of this lesson is that it incorporate children who are English as second language learners and need a good mix of repetition and new material. By incorporating songs, asking daily short conversation, quick simple things repeated daily and practice basic vocabulary every day, children will understand the lessons.Creativity is fostered throughout our classroom. Children have access to, an area and are encouraged to use various art supplies to create their own artwork. Paint, markers, pencils, crayons, oil pastels, and paper are readily available for children to freely explore. An activity I love to do where children use their imagination is designing butterflies. They combine different bodies and wings to design their own butterflies; then animate them in one of several beautiful scenes. Another example is drawing a mural. They explore line, shape, and space while arranging decorative tiles into an abstract picture.
Friday, August 16, 2019
A Five Forces Analysis of Allscripts, An Electronic Health Records (EHR) technology company Robert A. Brinker GBA 530 Ã¢â¬â Management Information Systems Professor Billie Whitfield February 6, 2012 The purpose of this paper is to identify competitive forces at work based on Michael PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Competitive Forces from his Competitive Analysis Model (McNurlin, 2009) and provide recommendations to Allscripts, an electronic health records (EHR) technology company, as to business technology related improvements.Reviewing the United States healthcare industry would be a massive undertaking, so I will narrow my analysis specifically to an industry that has great momentum, the Health Information Technology (HIT) industry. The healthcare industry was said to be in a makeover year in 2010. (PwC, 2010) Ã¢â¬Å"The U. S. health care sector includes more than 780,000 hospitals, doctor offices, emergency care units, nursing homes, and social services providers with combined annual reve nue of more than $2 trillionÃ¢â¬ . Hoovers, 2011) Many of these healthcare sector participants are very fragmented and information shared between them is either insufficient or non-existent. Most experts agree that the current spending on healthcare is unsustainable now representing 17. 3 percent of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s gross domestic product. Many factors are driving the high cost healthcare, but one thing is certain in that the delivery of healthcare hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t changed much over the last century at the patient and physician level. The delivery of healthcare is an antiquated paper driven process and in much need of modernization.The demand for HIT has been fueled by new Healthcare Reform legislation and incentives known as the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act or HITECH, passed by President Obama in 2009 as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). The intent of the HITECH Act is to promote the modernization of the healthcare sy stem to improve the quality of patient care and decrease overall costs by bringing technology to the practice of medicine. Ã¢â¬Å"More than $88. 6 billion was spent by healthcare providers in 2010 on developing nd implementing electronic health records (EHR), health Information exchanges (HIE), and other HIT initiativesÃ¢â¬ . (PwC, 2010) The HIT industry has incredible momentum and such high demand that HIT companies are entering the marketplace at an significant rate. Although this industry has become very competitive and saturated over the last 2 years, there are several prominent companies leading the EHR industry. Among them are Allscripts, GE Centricity, and eClinicalWorks, which have been researched for this paper. Below are specific areas where key competitive forces are at work relative to PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Competitive Analysis Model.Threat of new entrants Suppliers of EHR systems and software to hospitals and physician practices were initially few in number earl ier in the decade, but it has become a fiercely competitive industry. Privately owned small businesses now dominate the supply and demand for electronic medical records (EMRs) over the last several years. (Folino, 2009) As stated earlier government regulations have had a great impact on the threat of new entrants given the passing of new healthcare related regulations and proposed financial incentives issued to medical practices that implement EHR technology in their practices.Also, the increase in new entrants is certainly due to the low capital investments required to produce EHR products to the marketplace. In the past significant investments in large servers and data storage was required, which has been replaced in large part by internet based cloud technology. This trend is very likely to continue as cloud technology grows in acceptance and prices decrease. Threat of substitutes Overall, with demand for EHR systems growing it appears to be a very lucrative industry with substan tial growth potential.As with most technologies cost will begin to fall as more and more suppliers enter the marketplace. As the prices begin to fall more hospitals and physicians will find it more cost-effective to implement EHR, however as of now the cost to implement an EHR system is prohibitive for many, especially for small medical practices that dominate the healthcare landscape such as in New Jersey. As technology evolves through innovations such as cloud based technology and prices drop it can have a positive impact on substitute EHR products by improving affordability and ease of implementation.In short, there will be simple and lower costs alternatives available. Bargaining power of suppliers Supplier integration is becoming a trend in the EHR marketplace as well, such as a recent partnership between eClinicalWorks and Dell computers. Dave Garets, president and CEO of HIMSS Analytics, a Chicago based healthcare information technology company, is a healthcare analyst who ha s had 30 years of experience in the IT field. He said that Ã¢â¬Å"partnerships like the one between Dell and eClinicalWorks are strategic and a good idea for larger corporations. (Folino, 2009) These supplier integrations are important as most EHR systems are software based and of course need compatible hardware systems on which to execute the final EHR product to the end-user, the healthcare provider. Compatibility issues abound and have so far been a challenge, particularly with the iPad, a trendy device which is fast becoming the hardware tool of choice for many applications. Healthcare providers have to shop separately for EHR software offered by EHR vendors and the computer hardware, which is offered by computer companies. Bargaining power of buyersOf PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces, this one is quite evident. There is a large concentration of buyers in the EHR market, such as medical groups, primary care and specialist practices, hospitals, etc. and they have a lot of EHR vendors to choose from. Although buyers are not tremendously educated they can be selective. GE Healthcare markets its Centricity EHR system using a brand message that says, Ã¢â¬Å"Build new standards of Excellence, by building new standards of efficiency. Ã¢â¬ (GE Healthcare, 2012) This messaging can help buyers perceive the value through increase excellence and efficiencies.Online demonstrations are also a critical aspect of EHR companies attracting buyers. Features such as ease of use and medical practice application can be realized online very easily. This can help healthcare providers determine if an EHR system is worth further exploration. Intensity of rivalry Growth in this industry is very likely to continue as the need for modernization of healthcare continues and the a tipping point is reached where the adoption of EHR systems becomes a must for physicians practices and hospital systems.Currently the adoption rate is low but federal incentives continue to fuel an intense rivalr y amongst competitors in the health information technology arena and the degree of differentiation among companies in this space appears to be minimal. Ã¢â¬Å"Regardless of HIT's potential advantages, clinicians in the country's many small primary care practices can be overwhelmed by it and will need to be convinced that EHRs are affordable, enhance efficiency, and improve care. Then, they will need extensive, ongoing support. (OÃ¢â¬â¢Malley, 2011) Lyons Advisors, LLC, an IT consultant also states that Ã¢â¬Å"IT professionals will be most effective if they are helped to understand how a medical practice is different from other worksitesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Lyons, 2011) It appears obvious to me that a clear differentiator for companies in the EHR market would be to increase the education, training, and ongoing support of healthcare providers through the implementation of the EHR system. This needs to be done so by IT professionals educated on the inner workings and needs of the medical community that are their customers.As a result of this review and research, I submit the following recommendations to Allscripts: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consider integration partnerships with hardware technology companies with tablet type computer products, as portability will be important for healthcare providers as they move throughout their practices, the hospitals, nursing homes etc. Once such partnership could be with Apple and compatibility with its iPad. This partnership would go far to elevate Allscripts as an innovator and differentiate itself from its rivals. Make online demos accessible to healthcare professionals so they experience the intuitiveness and application of the Allscripts EHR system to their practices. Online demos could be made available to healthcare providers through You Tube, company websites, medical society websites, etc. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Differentiate and promote the Allscripts brand from competitors by educating IT staff on the medical and clinical needs of healthcare profess ionals, so that IT staff truly understands the specific needs of their customers relative to EHR application.This would bridge the gap that currently exists between the technology and real efficiencies and patient care improvements. It could also minimize likely decreases in revenue as their patient load decreases throughout the implementation phase. Allscripts is a leader in the health IT arena, but like most companies there is much room for improvement to stay competitive in a lucrative, but fiercely competitive marketplace. A marketplace that has a long future as the need for the modernization of the U. S. ealthcare system takes shape, as it is behind the curve compared to almost every other service industry. America and patients alike deserve healthcare that is cost-effective, efficient, and innovative. References McNurlin, B. C. , Sprague, R. H. , Jr. , & Bui, T. (2009). Information Systems Management in Practice (8th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Top health indu stry issues of 2011. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) at http://www. pwc. com accessed on January 30, 2012 View: Making over healthcare. 2010) Issue 14. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) at http://www. pwc. com accessed on January 30, 2012 Healthcare Industry Description. Hoovers. Retrieved at http://www. hoovers. com/industry/health-care/1374-1. html on September 18, 2011 Big Business Eyes EMR Industry. By Lauren Folino, Oct 6, 2009. Access at http://www. inc. com/news/articles/2009/10/emr. html on February 4, 2012 Introduction of an Electronic Medical Record System into Physician Practice Offices: Why Is It so #%! &-ing Hard for Everybody? Ã¢â¬âPart III.Joseph P. Lyons, MA, CPA,* and Stephen Klasko, MD, MBA. Information Systems (2011) Tapping the Unmet Potential of Health Information Technology O'Malley, Ann. The New England Journal of Medicine 364. A12 (Mar 24, 2011): 1090-1091 Allscripts corporate website, accessed at http://www. allscripts. com on February 3, 2012 eClinicalWorks corp orate website, accessed at http://www. eclinicalworks. com on February 3, 2012 GE Healthcare corporate website, accessed at http://www. gehealthcare. com on February 3, 2012
Retailing-consists of the final activities and steps needed to place merchandise made elsewhere into the hands of the consumer or to provide services to the consumer. Last step in supply chain. Trends that affect Retailing today: * E-tailing- ie. The Internet accounts for less than 5% of retail sales but has changed consumer behavior. (speed, convenience, control, vast info, lowest prices) hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t destroyed Ã¢â¬ ¦ *Bricks-and-Mortar retailers Ã¢â¬â Retailers that operate out of a physical building. Ã¢â¬â¢ but B & M retailers must give customers more control to combat E-tailing. Outshopping-when customers get needed info (such as proper size or how to assemble a product) in the store and then orders it online for a lower price and to avoid paying sales tax. * Price Competition Loss Leader-selling a product at or below its cost Bottom Line-net profit on an income statement *Same-Store sales-compares an individual storeÃ¢â¬â¢s sales to its sales for the same month in the previous year. *Market Share-the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s total sales divided by total market sales *Scrambled Merchandising- exists when a retailer handles many different and unrelated items. The result of the pressure being placed on many retailers to increase profits by carrying additional merchandise or services (with higher profit margins) that will also increase store traffic ex. Convenience store that sells low margin gasoline but high margin bread, milk, beer, ciggs ETC. Supercenters, gift cards in grocery stores but causes cost increases in RENT, INVENTORY COSTS, LABOR COSTs *Category Killer-a retailer that carries such a large amount of merchandise in a single category at such good prices that it makes it impossible for customers to walk out without purchasing that they need, thus KILLING the competition Categorizing Retailers Census Bureau- NAICS code Number of outlets- Chain? Or not? *Standard Stock list-a merchandising method in which all stores in a retail chain stock the same merchandise *Optional Stock List approach-merchandising method in which each store in a retail chain is given the flexibility to adjust its merchandise mix to local tastes and demands. *Channel Advisor or Captain-the institution (manufacturer, wholesaler, broker, or retailer) in the marketing channel that is able to plan for and get other channel institutions to engage in activities they might not otherwise engage in. Large store retailers are often able to perform the role of channel captain. *Private Label Branding- May be store branding, when a retailer develops its own brand name and contracts with a manufacturer to produce the product with the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s brand, or designer lines, where a known designer develops a line exclusively for the retailer. Margin/Turnover Gross margin percentage- measure of profitability GROSS MARGIN/NETSALES Gross Margin-NET SALES Ã¢â¬â COST OF GOODS SOLD Operating Expenses-expenses that a retailer incurs in running the business other than the cost of merchandise Inventory Turnover- refers to the number of times per year, on average, that a retailer sells its inventory. High Performance retailers-retailers that produce financial results substantially superior to the industry average. Low margin/low turnover-operates on a low gross margin percentage and a low rate of inventory turnoverÃ¢â¬ ¦ will not be able to generate sufficient profits to remain competitive and survive. High Margin/Low turnover-(bricks and mortar) high gross margin percentage and low ate of inventory turnover ( high end stores, mom and pop) Clicks and Mortar-instore and online Low margin High turnover- low gmp, high rate of inventory turnover (wal mart, amazon. com) High, High- convenience stores, 7 eleven, circle k, Location- new non traditional places. Size *Store management- the retailing career path that involves responsibility for selecting, training, and eval uating personnel, as well as instore promotions, displays, customer service, building maintenance, and security *Buying-retailing career path whereby one uses quantitative tools to develop appropriate buying plans for the storeÃ¢â¬â¢s merchandise lines. Analytical method Ã¢â¬âfinder and investigator of facts Creative Method- Idea person Two pronged approach- both analytical and creative CHAPTER 2 Strategic planning- involves adapting the resources of the firm to the opportunities and threats of an ever changing retail environment * Development of mission statement * Definition of specific goals and objectives for the firm * Identification and analysis of the retailers strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Ã¢â¬âSWOT ANALYIS * Development of basic strategies that will enable the firm to reach its objectives and fulfill its mission Mission statement- a basic description of the fundamental nature, rationale, and direction of the firm. Market Share- retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s TOTAL SALES/ TOTAL MARKET SALES Profit-based Objectives-deal directly with the monetary return a retailer desires from its business ROI/RONW- Return on investment/ Return on Net Worth STRATIEGIC PROFIT MODEL (MEMORIZE) Net ProfitMargin| Net Profit /Total Sales| Return on Assets| Net Profit* /Total Assets| Financial Leverage| Total Assets/Net Worth| Return on Net Worth| Net Profit*/Net Worth| X = Asset Turnover| Total Sales/Total Assets| Stockouts- products that are out of stock and therefore unavailable to customers when they want them Productivity objectives- state how much output the retailer desires for each unit of resource input: Floor space, labor, and inventory investment. * Sales prod: net sales/ total square feet of retail floor space * Labor prod: net sales/#of full time equivalent employees * Merchandise prod: net sales/average dollar investment in inventory Societal Objectives- those that reflect the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to help society fulfill some of itÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. * Employment objectives * Payment of Taxes * Consumer Choice * Equity * Being a benefactor RASM- (revenue per available seat mile) calculation used by airlines. Yield Management- the understanding, anticipating and reacting to changing customer needs in order to maximize the revenue from a fixed capacity of available services. (1)low marginal costs (2)fixed capacity (3) perishable product (4)fluctuation demand (5)different market segments Personal Objectives-reflect the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to help individuals employed in retailing fulfill some of their needs. * Self Gratification * Status and respect * Power and authority Strategy- a carefully designed plan for achieving the retailers goals and objectives. 3 strategies Get shoppers into your store/ traffic strategy Convert these shoppers into customers by having them purchase merchandise (retailers conversion Do this at the lowest operating cost possible that is consistent with the level of service that your customers expect Target market-the group of customers that the retailer is seeking to serve Location-geographic or cyber space where the retailer conducts business Retail mix- the combination of merchandise, price, advertising and promotion, locations, customer service and selling, and store layout and design Value proposition- clear statement of the tangible and/or intangible results a customer receives from shopping at and using the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s products or services Operations Management- deals with activities directed at maximizing the efficiency of the retailerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of resources. It is frequently referred to as day to day management. CHAPTER 6 Horizontal Price Fixing- occurs when a group of competing retailers (or other channel members operating at a given level of distribution) establishes a fixed price at which to sell certain brands of products ILLEGAL violates Sherman Antitrust Sec 1 Vertical Price Fixing-occurs when a retailer collaborates with the manufacturer or wholesaler to resell an item at an agreed upon price Price discrimination- occurs when 2 retailers buy an identical amount of Ã¢â¬Å"like grade and qualityÃ¢â¬ merchandise from the same supplier but pay different prices. Clayton act makes only certain forms illegal DEFENSES Cost justification- differential in price could be accounted for on the basis of differences in cost to the seller in the manufactur, sale, or delivery. Due to differences in quantity or method. Changing market differences-justifies based on the danger of imminent deterioration of perishable goods or on the obsolescence of seasonal goods. Meeting Competition in good faith -lower price was made in good faith in order to meet an equally low price of a competitor Deceptive Pricing-occurs when an misleading price is used to lure customers into the store and then hidden charges are added; or the item advertised may be unavailable. Predatory Pricing-exists when a retail chain charges different prices in different geographic areas to eliminate competition in selected geographic areas. Palming off-occurs when a retailer represents that merchandise is made by a firm other than the true manufacturer Deceptive advertising-when a retailer makes false of misleading advertising claims about the physical makeup of a product, the benefits to be gained by its use, or the appropriate uses for the product. Bait and switch- advertising or promoting a product at an unrealistically low rice to serve as Ã¢â¬Å"baitÃ¢â¬ and then trying to Ã¢â¬Å"switchÃ¢â¬ the customer to a higher priced product. Product liability laws-deal with the sellerÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility to market safe products. These laws invoke the forseeability doctrine, which states that a seller of a product must attempt to foresee how a product may be misused and warn the consumer against hazards of misuse. Expressed warranties- are either written or verbali zed agreements about the performance of a product and can cover all attributes of the merchandise or only one attribute Implied warranty of merchantability- made by every retailer when the retailer sells goods and implies that the merchandise sold is fit for the ordinary purpose for which such goods are typically used Implied warranty of fitness- a warranty that implies that the merchandise is fit for a particular purpose and arises when the customer relies on the retailer to assist or make the selection of goods to serve a particular purpose Territorial restrictions-are attempts by the supplier, usually a manufacturer, to limit the geographic area in which a retailer may resell its merchandise Dual distribution- occurs when a manufacturer sells to independent retailers and also through its own retail outlets One way exclusive dealing arrangement-occurs when the supplier agrees to give the retailer the exclusive right to sell the suppliers product in a particular trade area Two way exclusive dealing arrangement- occurs when the supplier offers the retailer the exclusive distribution of a merchandise line or product in a particular trade area if in return the retailer will agree to do something or the manufacturer, such as heavily promote the suppliers products or not handle competing brands. ILLEGAL. Tying agreement-exists when a seller with a strong product or service requires a buyer to purchase a weak product or service as a condition for buying the strong product or service Ethics-set of rules for human moral behavior Explicit code of ethics-consists of a written policy that states what is ethical and unethical behavior Implicit code of ethics- an unwritten but well und erstood set of rules or standards of moral responsibility Chapter 14 Empowerment- occurs when employees are given the power in their jobs to do the things necessary to satisfy and make things right for customers. Servant leadership-an employees recognition that their primary responsibility is to be of service to others. 20% of customers generate 80% of sales value proposition-the promised benefits a retailer offers in relation to the cost the consumer incurs customer relationship management CRM-comprised of an integrated information system where the fundamental unit of data collection is the customer, supplemented by relevant information about the customer erformance appraisal and review- is the formal, systematic assessment of how well employees are performing their jobs in relation to established standards and the communication of that assessment to employees Motivation-is the drive that a person has to excel at activities, such as a job, that he or she undertakes Esprit de corps- occurs when a group of workers feel a common mission and a passion fo r that mission and a pride in being part of the group Fixed component- typically is composed of some base wage per hour, week, month, or year Variable component-is often composed if some bonus that is received if performance warrants Fringe benefit package-is a part of the total compensation package offered to many retail employees and may include health insurance, disability benefits, life insurance, retirement plans, child care, use of an auto, and financial counseling Job enrichment- the process of enhancing the core job characteristics to improve the motivation, productivity, and job satisfaction of employees.