Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Horrors of Animal Euthanasia Essay - 1429 Words

The Horrors of Animal Euthanasia Due to the domestication of cats and dogs their populations have skyrocketed. This is due in part to the lack of pet owners acting in a responsible manner. These responsibilities include the spaying and neutering of pets. These numbers of homeless animals in communities have caused humane societies to euthanize too many animals. This, I feel is a violation to animal rights and is a cruel way for these animals to have to leave this world. I disagree with the activists who believe that the way to keep animal populations down is to euthanize these poor animals. Nothing good could come from the slaughtering of these animals. Fostering large numbers of animals in communities is an overwhelming†¦show more content†¦As they take the dog on a leash down to the E-room, it wags its tail and trembles in fear. Its excited for the attention, but at the same time is in fear of what hes being led to. All the dogs stop barking as they lead him down the isle. They know whats going on. One of their fellow friends is going to die, and they may be next. They place the dog on an old blanket on the concrete floor and shave off a patch of fur on his leg. The dog starts to tremble more. A tourniquet is wrapped slowly around his leg and a syringe of cool blue liquid death enters his body making his eyelids grow heavy and eventually falling limp in the arms of the employee. His heartbeat slowly dissapates and then stops. This, unfortunately, is a regular occurence in animal shelters today. Some proponents for euthinization in animal shelters believe that giving them a dignified painless death is a lot better than leaving them out to die on the streets. Also they feel that allowing a dog or cat to be subjected to abuse and neglect is inhumane and worse than death. ( Mountain, p.2 ). I totally agree with them, but resorting to euthinization is not the only solution. We should look to the pet owners and the people of our society for the solutions. Animal shelters should have campaigns to help promote the adoption of animals in their shelter. Reach out to the people of society and let them know what kind of influence a pet can bring into their life. We shouldnt give up on theseShow MoreRelatedShould Euthanasia Be Legalized? Essay1200 Words   |  5 Pages â€Å" To insist on artificially maintaining existence without regard for its condition is a degradation of the meaning of life, not a promotion of it (Cockeram 33) .† Many adults perceive euthanasia as a murderous act that involves cruel and unusual pain; when in fact, it is usually a method that helps the individual reach their demise in a less miserable manor. Immigrants to the United States are inclined to become a citizen, not for the beautiful geography, but because the U.S. is one of the few countriesRead MoreThe Bad Of Puppy Mills1199 Words   |  5 Pagesmills are harmful to animals and they should be shut down/made illegal. Dogs in puppy mills are brutally abused and killed and they have no ability to defend themselves. In a report filed by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) it says that female dogs are bred twice a year and when they can no longer produce puppies they are left to die or to be killed (PETA 1). Also, puppy mill workers don t care about the animals as described in an article written by the Animal Rescue Corps (ARC)Read MoreAnimal Slaughtering Is The Killing Of Animals1255 Words   |  6 PagesAnimal slaughtering is the killing of animals; most of them domestic, and mainly for the purpose of human consumption. Many different types of animal slaughtering methods have been created such as; carbon dioxide, inert gas hypoxia, captive bolt pistol, gunshot, exsanguination, and many other that are not regulated. Such varying methods have evolved since the beginning of times, but with the increasing rates of the human population a faster way of slaughtering needed to be create d in order to keepRead MoreEuthanasi A Debate Of Morals, Ethics And The Value Of Human Life2388 Words   |  10 Pages Euthanasia has been a long emotional and tedious debate stemming as far back as ancient Roman and Greek times and is highly controversial still to this day. Some even reference Hippocrates the father of Western medicine and his Hippocratic Oath as a means of being against legalizing euthanasia in every state. Euthanasia is a debate of morals, ethics and the value of human life. Those against euthanasia focus on the word killing, but it is the person doing it to themselves and not someoneRead MoreWithin the Holocaust1193 Words   |  5 Pagesminds for eternity; the Holocaust affected many people, including the Jewish, the mentally challenged, homosexuals and, prisoners of war (POW). There are several accounts from survivors of the Holocaust, but many, people were not as fortunate. The horrors from this event were hidden. Yet children like Anne Frank, were terribly affected. The holocaust has affected millions of people and their story should be known. The Jewish people were not the only target of the Nazis, the concept of killing theRead MoreTo the Mercy Killers Analysis1359 Words   |  6 PagesDudley Randall’s poem To the Mercy Killers tackles one of the most controversial issues in America today: euthanasia. No other issue has divided and caused much division and divergence in thought and views in this county as mercy killing and has through the years along with abortion become the defining topic of politics in America. Mercy killing and in fact the very question of what defines life has becoming a moral dilemma and a divisive factor in our society. Dudley Randall’s To the Mercy KillersRead MoreThe Nazi Regime During Hitler s Reign1759 Words   |  8 PagesShepherds on him: the guard dogs first bit into his groin and thighs, then devoured him right in front of us. His shrieks of pain were distorted and amplified by the pail in which his head was trapped. My rigid body reeled, my eyes gaped at so much horror, te ars poured down my cheeks, I fervently prayed that he would black out quickly† . Therefore, from this excerpt it is shown how Homosexuals were treated viciously by getting eaten and torn up by dogs in front of a crowd; this in particular is a distinctiveRead More Utilitarianism Essay example3165 Words   |  13 Pagesthose that still have a hope of a cure. When a life is lost it does not only affect the person that has passed, it affects those who remain behind. Suicide by conventional mean can lead the survivors of the suicide lost in the trauma and in some cases horror of details of a person that did not have the option of taking their own life in a peaceful and dignified way. It is easy to see that the results far out weight he taboo of physician assisted suicide for those who have not other hope of a cure. Read More Arguments of Christopher Browning versus Daniel John Goldhagen Regarding The German View of the Holocaust2646 Words   |  11 Pagesknowledge that the largest group of people to suffer in the Holocaust was the Jews, but what about other victims? In Goldhagens novel the explanation of the protests against the Euthanasia program are clearly described as Germans upset only because these victims were Germans but deemed Life unworthy of life. The Euthanasia program saw German physicians take the lives of more than seventy thousand people. Here Goldhagen has a very valid point but it does not convince me that the Germans have aRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s The Loss Of Their Dream 1795 Words   |  8 PagesHuffington Post titled â€Å"I m Not a Tart: The Feminist Subtext of Steinbeck s Of Mice and Men.† Leighton Meester played the role of Curley’s wife and wrote this article on her perspective of this character. She writes, â€Å"Curley s wife is compared to an an imal in an effort to reduce and humiliate her. She is†¦described as a bitch who just ‘slang nine pups.’ ‘She d be better off dead,’ and that attitude is undoubtedly mirrored toward the lone woman. But when the dog gets led off to be shot, protests can

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Ethical Ethics Of An Ethical Corporation Is Not An Oxymoron

An ethical corporation is not an oxymoron. History is littered with tales of deceit and corruption. Human conduct towards ethics in today’s workplace is an important issue; recent headlines show consequences of unethical behavior on both companies and employees. Contained within the basic code of ethics in the workplace are words like, trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, (Chatov, 1980). Consider questions like, is it ethical to take office supplies from work for home use, or is it ethical to use company time for personal business? What is ethical behavior? The meaning of a code ethics in the workplace for most; is to conform to accepted basic standards ethical conduct and especially professional conduct when dealing with data, e. g. scientific research, accurate statistics. In other words, ethics is putting principles into actions and consistency between what we say we value and our actions, as a matter of integrity. An action is not proper just because you can get away with it like, an executive having an affair with another co-worker, or watching videos of funny cats, when you should be doing monthly reports on sales. Stealing and lying are unacceptable conduct in the workplace, as they are anywhere else. There is a world of difference between what you have the right to do and what is right to do. A basic workplace ethical code comes from the desire to benefit society and professions as a whole (Calderon, 2012). This paper proceeds as follows.Show MoreRelatedThe Role Of Ethics And Social Responsibility On Developing A Strategic Plan746 Words   |  3 Pages Ethics is the â€Å"consensually accepted standards of behavior for an occupation, trade, or profession† (Wheelen Hunger, 2010, p. G4). Ethics in business involve different standards based on the location and customs. What is ethically acceptable in one environment may not be acceptable in another. Analyzing ethics is essential when developing strategic plans. Some even may argue that there is no such thing as business ethics (Wheelen Hunger, 2010). The whole concept of ethics and business is a bitRead MoreThe Importance of Ethics in Business Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesEthics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles correlated to human behavior concerning the rightness and wrongness of specific conduct, and to the good and bad that influences and ends those actions (, 2011). In other words, ethics is the choice people effect in regards to a decision they need to achieve. Without ethics directing the choice an individual makes, moral prefe rences of what should or should not be done becomes irrelevant. While ethical decisions areRead MoreBusiness Ethics Is Not an Oxymoron1431 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Ethics Is Not An Oxymoron by Dexter Calma Ateneo Graduate School of Business Business, in a very simplified definition, describes an exchange of something for another. In this context, it can be implied that there is a fiduciary understanding that the parties involved receive goods or services that are of equal value according to the appraisal system that they have agreed upon, whether it is based on units of measurement, or just mere goodwill. Thus, ethical standards that are appliedRead MoreThe Corporation Joel Bakan Presents Arguments872 Words   |  4 PagesIn the book, The Corporation Joel Bakan presents arguments, that corporations are nothing but institutional pathological psychopaths that are â€Å"a dangerous possessor of the great power it wields over people and societies.† Their main responsibility is maximizing profit for their stockholders and ignoring the means to achieve this goal, portrays them as â€Å"psychopathic.† Bakan argues that, corporations are psychopaths, corporate social responsibility is illegal, and that corporatio ns are able to manipulateRead MoreAnalysis : The Corporation Joel Bakan878 Words   |  4 Pagesbook, The Corporation Joel Bakan, presents arguments: that corporations are nothing but institutional pathological psychopaths that are â€Å"a dangerous possessor of the great power it wields over people and societies.† Their main responsibility is maximizing profit for their stockholders and ignoring the means to achieve this goal. This in results portrays them as â€Å"psychopathic.† Bakan argues that: corporations are psychopaths, corporate social responsibility is illegal, and that corporations are ableRead MoreBusiness Ethics: Adelphia Scandal1476 Words   |  6 PagesAs the turn of the 21st Century evolved, it appeared as if Adelphia Communications Corporation was on a direct path of success; unbeknownst to their investors and the public, they were in reality on a direct path of destruction instead. Unfortunately, Adelphia is not the first major company in the hist ory of the United States’ business world to lose the trust of the American public, but it is certainly one of the most notable ones to do so. As the events surrounding the Adelphia scandal unfoldedRead MoreThe Issue Of Business Ethics Essay1359 Words   |  6 Pages An oxymoron acts as a form of figurative language that grasps the attention of the reader and puts emphasis on two or more words. In the context of everyday life we hear some â€Å"normal† oxymorons such as â€Å"jumbo shrimp, passive aggressive, awfully good, The Great Depression,† and of course, â€Å"business ethics.† In terms of â€Å"business ethics,† the common misconception still remains that the word, â€Å"business† and the word, â€Å"ethics† should never be adjacent. Primarily, I find this misconception offensiveRead MoreTesco and The Horsemeat Scandal1413 Words   |  6 Pagesrevolves around Tesco’s issues with Corporate Social Responsibility (Hench f orth know as CSR) as they didn’t hold themselves to the stakeholders and society in general. These issues with CSR can be explained through applying agency theory and various ethical theories. Furthermore the actions taken by Tesco will be examined; both how they handled the scandal and the repercussions for parties involved in the scandal. Finally the effect of this scandal on Tesco’s overall performance will be assessed andRead More The ethics in which we work Essay1885 Words   |  8 PagesThe ethics in which we work Human Resources Through out the course of this class my thoughts and views on the aspect alone of the human resources department has changed. I once thought this was a department that had little to no foothold in the dynamics of a corporation. However it is now evident to me that with out the HR department the entire functionality of any organization would crumble to ruins. For this research paper the assignment was to investigate and research one aspect ofRead MoreBusiness Ethics Notes3727 Words   |  15 Pagesfor Business Ethics Business ethics can be defined as written and unwritten codes of principles and values that govern decisions and actions within a company. In the business world, the organization’s culture sets standards for determining the difference between good and bad decision making and behavior. In the most basic terms, a definition for business ethics boils down to knowing the difference between right and wrong and choosing to do what is right. The phrase business ethics can be used

Monday, December 9, 2019

Policies and Protocols of Business Management †

Question: Discuss about the Policies and Protocols of Business Management. Answer: Introduction This assignment is about the selection or the recruitment of the store manager in the retail shop of Australia. Being the HR of the retail store I am appointed with this task to recruit a store manager. A retail store or a retail shop is an entity that scolds consumer goods primarily to the end consumers. Where as a store manager is a person who manages the store, where each and every employee is answerable to him where every little or big activity takes place with his permission(Singla 2013). Our retail store has its own policies and procedures regarding the selection of the employees. In order to select a store manager following procedure is followed to recruit a right person in the organization: logical thinking test, behavioral intelligence test, psychometric tests written tests essays etc group discussion round personal interview In the first round the applicants have to undergo a logical or behavioral or a psychometric test, following to this the qualified applicants will have to pass an essay written test, only those candidates that has passed this stage will move forward to group discussion and ultimately few will reach the personal interview stage and the selected ones will get the appointment letter(Azarello 2011). Technology in the Recruitment Process Employers are now improving the ways of recruiting the new employees. Following technologies can be used by the retail shop to improve the efficiency(Parthasarthy 2010). 1.Video-recruitment: Taking interviews on video. 2.Intelligent screening software: This software screens, grades and shortlist the perfect candidates In order to get the support of the senior manager, I will prepare a blue print for this selection process about how we can increase our efficiency by conducting recruitment process by different means and this is i am going to communicate with him by preparing a PPT, because it will help me more in keeping my points in front of him, this PPT will not only help in this selection process but we can make further improvements for future's recruitment procedures. For the existing staff, if any new policy or procedure is made then it will be communicated them by a video message that will not only contain that policy or the procedures information but about what they have to do and what not(Khan 2013). Conclusion Above is a short essay on a recruitment process of a store manager, here is a conclusion provided on that. With the advancement in technology organizations are finding newer ways of conducting recruitment process that are efficient and cost effective. Being the HR of the retail store it is the duty of the HR to conduct the recruitment process efficiently and effectively. Bibliography Azarello, P 2011, Practical Step for Advancing Your Career, Bath. Khan, R 2013, 'Policies Protocols of Business Management', Business World , p. 10. Parthasarthy, S 2010, 'Placement Preparation', Jobs Hunt Daily, p. 12. Singla, RK 2013, 'Retail Marketing Management', Marketing World, p. 50.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Silence Wreaks Havoc on America free essay sample

BREAKING NEWS: Coming as a shock to absolutely no one, rumors about the alleged escape of Killer Silence have been confirmed. According to reports from the Deputy of Speaking Your Mind, this criminal is highly persuasive and poses a threat to anyone with personal values. Killer Silence has been known to wreak havoc during times of great political controversy, but his destruction is never truly contained behind bars. In the event of an encounter with said criminal, please call the Informed Opinions Department immediately. Failure to take action could compromise your safety and clear conscience. According to recently released files, Killer Silence has been charged on tireless accounts of convincing people with valuable opinions to remain silent on pressing issues in America. This versatile criminal has pervaded countless areas of debate, taking a toll on everything from politics to education to family. His crimes range from warning students against standing up to a bully to convincing a senator to vote in favor of a law that perpetuates violence. We will write a custom essay sample on Silence Wreaks Havoc on America or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Killer Silence will continue to undermine our country’s goals if we don’t lock him away for good. Killer silence is cunning in his infiltration of American society. You may not notice him lurking during your middle school debates or dinner table conversations, but more often than not, Killer Silence is there. He is often disguised as â€Å"keeping the peace† and will leave your likability intact. You may, however, discover a feeling of guilt after stuffing your opinions down a few too many times. As appealing as a polite conversation seems, the truth of this matter cannot be avoided: the longer Killer Silence roams free, the longer you remain imprisoned by his coercion. Killer Silence has made his most obvious impact on America in the macro sense. As local officer Jeffrey Justice states, â€Å"Killer Silence has been undermining the work of political advocates for decades.† Many people who’ve dedicated their careers to improving America’s laws and social institutions have found their efforts futile because of this criminal’s persistence. Killer Silence has made it extremely difficult for core problems to be addressed within our government; people are afraid to speak out. His presence in America promotes an alarming amount of prejudice and discriminatory behavior on an institutional level. Without strong advocates for positive change, this convict will continue to stanch our progression as a country. While Killer Silence has played a large role in our country’s destructive tendencies in the past, there is still hope for justice. This criminal’s capture begins with making changes on a small level. The next time that you come into contact with Killer Silence, don’t be afraid to confront him head-on. Voice your concerns with the way an individual is being treated; write an article about the way you think climate change should be addressed. This felon feeds off inaction. Sharing your opinions may not seem like a major contribution, but change on a national scale starts with a few people standing up for their beliefs. Small steps will lead to larger steps; larger steps will lead to real progression. The stronger our convictions are, the sooner we can see Killer Silence behind bars. This felon may be threatening, but if we band together and raise our voices, the silence won’t be quite as deafening.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Journal About Working People Example

Journal About Working People Example Journal About Working People – Coursework Example Issues facing working people today It is difficult to deny the fact that workers are facing challenges. This however is not the great depression, but it is a period that needs to be distinguished from any other in various ways. The first being that the challenges are simply coming on multiple fonts and the second is that the public is not seeing the problems being solved.Lack of enough jobsLack of enough work is perhaps the major problem that today’s workers are facing. Nationally, today’s unemployment rate remains just above the comfort level without adding those who work only part-time and those who have been discouraged and they are no longer counted in the statistics of workforce (Atkinson 23).Security and living standardsWorking people’s lives manifests these in various ways. It is obvious that with rising prices and stagnant incomes quality of people’s life declines. Financial emergencies have become so common today such that it becomes hard for many workers to budget which is also reflected in security.Retirement anxietyRetirement, as it is, is not a total bust, and to them who are working and wondering when they are likely to stop working it’s still not a party. Many workers during the hard times economically have seen their pays freeze, and others cut, which makes it hard for many workers to get ahead or even keep up.Home valuesHousing crisis compounds the problems faced by working Americans. Most asset-holding middle-class families have recently seen the asset valued most to them fall precipitously in value. For example, Data retrieved from the Federal Reserve indicate that home equity that is relative to income in March 2014 dropped by 5 percent which is the largest drop of its kind on record in comparison to a quarter earlier (Atkinson 17).Bad bossesAnother reason that makes jobs disappointing is the boss. One in almost every two employee admits to have suffered under a boss who is unreasonable. Some of them deal w ith it by trying to make the situation better or just decide to suffer through it. But others decide to quit when they are lined up for a new job or just immediately which is a big disruptive cost to any economy.Atkinson, Anthony B. The EU and social inclusion: Facing the challenges. New York: Policy Press, 2009. Print. Journal About Working People Example Journal About Working People – Coursework Example Journal about Working People Among the other problems faced by working people, recent studies indicate that individuals belonging to ethnic minorities face extreme bullying and counterproductive behaviors as compared to others which creates a discouraging job environment. A research is conducted on this issue by using the sample of skill migrant job seekers in Australia. The literature review on this challenge suggests that skillful migrants face issues throughout from getting jobs to sustaining workplace discrimination and counterproductive behaviors. They initially encounter problems to find a job which matches their skills, education and offers sufficient wages. Cultural adjustment is a challenging task for migrant as it creates hurdles in making their place in the Australian workforce. This discriminating, bullying attitude affects their performance. A pilot research was conducted on various participants to study this problem. The pilot research stated that people who wanted to j oin the Australian workforce had to learn communication skills which matches the culture and gain job seeking skills to help in finding job of their interest. They learned that in Australia one needs to explain the matter in detail before asking anything as compared to Singapore where to the point discussion is preferred. They also face adjustment and discrimination issues at workplace. However, it was observed that migrant workers are more willing to adjust and adapt to the culture. They learn quickly which helps them in fitting into the job environment. Moreover, it is suggested that more research should be conducted to realize the experiences and problems of migrant working people. ReferenceRamsay, Sheryl Gai, Michelle Carmel Barker, and Linda Shallcross. "Counter-productive forces at work: Challenges faced by skilled migrant job-seekers." (2008). Journal About Working People Example Journal About Working People – Coursework Example FACTORS FACING WORKING PEOPLE TODAY There are several issues affecting working people today, both socially and economically. Working Conditions This is a very common factor affecting workers today globally. Most workers are subjected to unworthy working environment hence affecting their productivity. This can be due to poor management or laxity in the part of the administration to provide its workers with good environment. Lately, a lot of human right organizations are trying to fight for workers in order to curb this problem. A good example is a situation where people work in mines without safety tools like helmets which in turn endanger the lives of the workers.Low Pay or UnderpayMany workers are not paid the amount of wages or salaries they deserve, this in turn demoralizes them and their productivity goes down. A lot of cases have been reported lately about workers going on strike due to poor pay. This implies that most workers are facing this issue across the globe.Change in Tec hnologyTechnology is moving very fast and due to this, most workers who were employed before a lot of changes in technology are forced to adjust to the new technology or else they risk losing their jobs. Due to technology also, some working people have been forced to lose their jobs to pave way to the so called Artificially Intelligent Machines which now act in place of humans.InsecurityThis is affecting workers who work within areas that are prone to terror attacks and other violent attacks. Recently, some employees have been forced to flee their places of work due to insecurity. As a result of these, workers live in fear which in turn affects their productivity. Cultural and Religious DifferencesWorkers who are subjected to this issue are forced to choose whether to change their cultural/religious beliefs to suit their working environment or quit their job. This happens when an employee is posted to work away from his/her locality.SourceFriedman, Eric. 4 External Factors That Affe ct Human Resource Management. Blogging4Jobs. N.p., 2013. Web. 26 Apr. 2015.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Discover The Cuban Swimmer, a Play by Milcha Sanchez-Scott

Discover The Cuban Swimmer, a Play by Milcha Sanchez-Scott The Cuban Swimmer is a one-act family drama with spiritual and surrealistic overtones by the American playwright  Milcha  Sanchez-Scott. This experimental play can be a creative challenge to stage because of its unusual setting and bilingual script. But it also presents actors and directors with an opportunity to explore identity and relationships in modern California culture. Synopsis As the play begins, 19-year-old Margarita Suarez is swimming from Long Beach to Catalina Island. Her Cuban-American family follows along in a boat. Throughout the competition (the Wrigley Invitational Women’s Swim), her father coaches, her brother cracks jokes to hide his jealousy, her mother frets, and her grandmother yells at the news helicopters. All the while, Margarita pushes herself onward. She battles the currents, the oil slicks, the exhaustion, and the family’s constant distractions. Most of all, she battles herself. Theme Most of the dialogue within â€Å"The Cuban Swimmer† is written in English. Some of the lines, however, are delivered in Spanish. The grandmother, in particular, speaks mostly in her native tongue. The switching back and forth between the two languages exemplifies the two worlds which Margarita belongs to, the Latino and the American. As she struggles to win the competition, Margarita tries to fulfill the expectations of her father as well as the crass American media (the news anchormen and the television viewers). However, by the play’s end, when she drifts beneath the surface when her family and the newscasters believe that she has drowned, Margarita separates herself from all outside influences. She discovers who she is, and she saves her life (and wins the race) independently. By almost losing herself in the ocean, she discovers who she truly is. The themes of cultural identity, especially Latino culture in Southern California, are common in all of Sanchez-Scotts works. As she told an interviewer in 1989: My parents came to California to settle, and the Chicano culture there was so different to me, very, very different from Mexico or where I came from [in Colombia]. Yet there were similarities: we spoke the same language; we had the same skin color; we had the same interaction with culture. Staging  Challenges As mentioned in the overview, there are many complicated, almost cinematic elements within  Sanchez-Scott’s The Cuban Swimmer. The main character is â€Å"swimming† the entire time. How would you, as a director, portray this action on stage?Margarita’s family puts along on a boat. How would you convey this? With a set? Pantomime?Helicopters and news commentators â€Å"interfere† with the characters. In what ways could sound effects enhance or sully the play? The Playwright Milcha  Sanchez-Scott was born in Bali, Indonesia, in 1953, to a Colombian-Mexican father and an Indonesian-Chinese mother. Her father, a botanist, later took the family to Mexico and Great Britain before settling in San Diego when  Sanchez-Scott was 14. After attending the University of California-San Diego, where she majored in drama, Sanchez-Scott moved to Los Angeles to pursue an acting career. Frustrated by a dearth of roles for Hispanic and Chicano actors, she turned to playwriting, and in 1980 she published her first play, Latina. Sanchez-Scott followed the success of Latina with several other plays in the 1980s. The Cuban Swimmer was first performed in 1984 with another one-act play of hers, Dog Lady. Roosters followed in 1987 and Stone Wedding in 1988. In the 1990s,  Milcha  Sanchez-Scott largely withdrew from the public eye, and little is known of her in recent years. Sources Bouknight, Jon. Language as a Cure: An Interview with Milcha Sanchez-Scott. Latin American Theatre Review, Spring 1990.Mitgang, Herbert. Theater: Dog Lady and Swimmer. The New York Times, 10 May 1984.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

All-Day School in Cyprus Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

All-Day School in Cyprus - Essay Example Large extended families have given way to nuclear families. Also, the increasing divorce rate has also led to an increase in single-parent households (Employment developments in childcare services for school-age children, p.3, All-day school: Schools in Cyprus work on half-day basis, ending at 13.00. All-day schools offer school services till late in the afternoon. All-day schools are considered an extension of childcare; since it is voluntary and caters to children aged 9 to 11, not many children attend All-Day school. Only 37% of the total child population attends All-Day school, according to the Ministry of Education and Culture. The government thus plans to bring children of all ages under this scheme. The government plans to initiate policies to implement this scheme in Cyprus shortly. Children attending all-day schools from 07.30 till 16.00 will be provided with lunch at 13.00. After this, another teacher will supervise the children until 16.00. The all-day school remains functional in October to May. The months of June to September will be holidays. The curriculum consists of carrying out assigned homework, four teaching periods of reinforced teaching, and four teaching periods of any of the following two: English, Information Technology, Music, Physical Education, Art, Design and Technology. Additional subjects on Modern Greek and mathematics are also available. The Ministry of Education and Culture piloted the 'all-day school' concept in 1999-2000, an initiative considered successful by the Special Evaluation Committee, as it elicited positive response from parents for its enhancement of knowledge in the children. In 2003-2004, these schools increased to 110. The Ministry of Education and Culture decided to increase All-Day schools in July 2005 (Employment developments in childcare services for school-age children, p.8-9, The Cyprus educational system is undergoing changes. The main factors, leading to such a change are: 1. Challenges in the international arena; challenges revolving around the development of science and technology, including Information Technology and Globalization. This factor cannot be overlooked as Cyprus is increasingly reliant on its human resources for development. 2. The European dimension is another factor that required attention, as it needed to harmonize its educational system in analogy to the rest of Europe. 3. A third factor could be the social values and requirements of the people of Cyprus. Cypriots considered education as a

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

American Women of Science Since 1900 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

American Women of Science Since 1900 - Essay Example The paper will compare their roles during those times with the recent times. It will also dwell the factors linked to rise or fall in the involvement of women in Mathematics. Role of American Women in Mathematics in Twentieth Century Mathematics refers to a theory of application of symbols and numbers in the calculating of measurements, shapes, patterns, and spatial relationships. Mathematics is applicable in a variety of ways and acts as the foundation for science, social science and applied sciences (Wayne 134). However, the status of women in the field of Mathematics have been affected by a perception that math’s is difficult. American women of the ancient times viewed Mathematics as a subject that was dependent on a person’s talent and not on education (Marx & Roman 1185). This affected the female child education in America, as they did not show any interest in the subject due to the negative perception they had of it. However, the trend of women’s involvemen t in Mathematics began to change between 1970s and 1980s when a feminist reform movement started advocating female child involvement in math’s education. The movement was also geared at abating gender biases in America’s classrooms so that early female child education in Mathematics could be given priority. ... With intense advocacy and enlightenment, the figure of female mathematicians started improving, which saw other women also earn doctorate degrees in Mathematics. The women included Anna Johnson Weeler (1910) and Olive Hazlett (1915). However, the figure was still low as it was estimated that only 5.53% of women had earned doctorate degrees in Mathematics by late 1961. The figure remained low for the entire twentieth century (Wayne 134). It is worth noting that despite the perception about American women in relation to Mathematics, some of the earlier women stood strong and contributed a lot to the field of Mathematics (Marx & Roman 1185). This was evident during the post World War II where American female mathematicians Grace Hopper and Margaret Butler worked passionately at the military and government digital computer development, Mina Rees dealing with at the military jet rocket propulsion applications and high speed computers (Wayne 134). After the end of World War Two, Evelyne B. Granville was honored as one of the first black women in the United States to earn a doctorate degree in Mathematics. The contributions made by these women were so evident that it became apparent that women could as well play a role in the field of Mathematics, science, and engineering just as their male counterparts (Wayne 134). Comparison with their Role in Recent Decade Statistics from the past decade shows that women’s involvement in the field of Mathematics has improved tremendously. For example, a survey conducted in 2006 revealed that the number of women who had earn doctorate degrees in Mathematics and statistics stood at 29%, which was an increase of about 25 %

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Tylenol Recall Essay Example for Free

Tylenol Recall Essay The worldwide recall of the Tylenol product in light of discovering some samples having poison in them is most certainly correct under the Utilitarian principle, which focuses on what will be the greater good for the greater number.   Obviously, when human lives are at stake the greater good is almost always guaranteed to be whatever will prevent the loss of life. Granted, stockholders, stakeholders, patients, etc. were negatively effected for a short duration, and there were presumably several more stockholders and so on effected by the recall than there were potential deaths, but a company such as Johnson and Johnson has been able to maintain its positive image and consumer loyalty due to behaviors which are viewed as being morally responsible, so the short-term effects were likely minimal and exactly that: short-term.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   An opposing argument might be that the risks of any human life actually being lost was minimal, and that a random product sampling would have been enough to determine if indeed any other product had been contaminated, and therefore the product should NOT have been recalled, simply because the potential risk of loss of human life and the lawsuits sure to follow was less than the risk of dollars lost by the company, by the shareholders, by employees, suppliers, distributors, etc.   Some might argue this loss is far greater than any of the potential risks associated with the poisoned pills. However, once again to cite the Utilitarian principle, whatever is morally â€Å"right† is that which creates the most happiness, or overall â€Å"good,† for the larger number of people.   Again, human death is something that is generally received as far more severe than the temporary loss of money (which can be recovered).   15 human deaths in comparison to a loss of 15 million, even billion, dollars is far more significant in the minds of most people in our society. Especially for a consumer product (and not for any greater purpose, such as the freedom of our country which leads to casualties of war), there is no level of acceptable loss of human life in the interest of saving a large corporation some money.   The perseverance of human life produces greater happiness with the public, which also reinstalls faith in a morally responsible company such as Johnson and Johnson, which allows them to fairly easily recover any net losses, which puts all the stockholders and others effected by it right back on a level playing field.   And no lives were lost.   By Utilitarian principles, everyone in this situation wins.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

death of a salesman :: essays research papers

I am reading The Book , â€Å"Death of a salesman â€Å", by Arthur Miller. The major theme that runs throughout the book is the importance of being happy with who you are. This idea is seen through how others and Willy view himself. The other way we can see the theme of social acceptance is how Willy pushes it on his son Biff. Lastly the theme is exemplified by how Willy only pays attention to Biff because people like him.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Willy thinks that if a person is well-liked, then the entire world opens up to them. Willy seems to think that people don’t like him, but as soon as he says something to Linda his wife she reassures him that he is well-liked. One time when he goes to borrow money from Uncle Charley he tells him that if a man is impressive and respected that nothing else matters. Uncle Charley says that it is what you have that is what counts not who likes you or not. Willy is always saying that he is vital to New England and that he makes so much money when he goes there. This is all totally not true. You can tell because he won’t take a job there or even bring his sons which he has been promising for years. Willy is lying to himself and is seeking for reassurance in the wrong places.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Willy has been pressing Biff to Believe that you have to be well liked above all ever since Biff has been a little kid. In the story Willy depends on Biff because he has so much personal attractiveness. Willy has instilled this concept from an early age and we can see this because of a few things. First, when Biff stole a football from school to practice with and told his father, he did nothing because he thought that it showed initiative and the coach would like him for it. Another way we can see that Biff struggles with acceptance is one time when he went to an interview with Oliver. He is standing in the office and he steals Oliver’s pen and just runs out and goes home. He stole the pen because he didn’t want to wait to see Oliver. He was embarrassed for waiting so long and stole the pen and got out of there. I think it is sad that Willy has done this to his son.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Gender Roles Today Essay

1. What subtle messages about sex, gender, gender identity and roles, and sexuality were evident in these images? There were many subtle messages when it came to the ads shown in the video. When it came to sexuality, women were shown to be vulnerable and weak; an example is the gang bang shown in the D&G ad with men surrounding the woman. Men are shown as dominant and having control over the woman in many images. Gender identity is similar when it comes to sex; women are shown to be soft, flawless and unrealistically thin; also, I noticed no lesbians in the ads as if gay women don’t exist. Also, men are shown in an unrealistic light and identity; for example, the old rich man who can have any woman because he is rich. As mentioned in the video, this gives many men anxiety and pressure to be ‘rich’. I think all together sex, sexuality and gender roles are shown in a very negative and mostly unrealistic light. 2. What was your response to seeing these images discussed in this way? Was it new to you? Had you noticed different messages being sent to men and women as you flipped through magazines before? Will you look at images in the media in a different way after watching this video? I was really shocked by the images shown in the video. I can’t say I’ve never seen the images shown but I’ve definitely never thought of the subtle messages behind them. I have to say it definitely provided an explanation to me as to why people struggle with things like weight and even depression. I realized media does put an immense amount of pressure on women to be thin but i never noticed the prejudice when it came to gender identity roles. I never noticed the vulnerability of women portrayed and the role of weakness that they place in these ads. All of it is surprising to me especially because I feel like women’s roles have changed over time. Right now they are considered head ho nchos of many companies and as mentioned in the beginning of the video, many companies who have women managing these corporations make more money. 3. How does Jackson Katz show that men’s behaviors are socially constructed and socially learned?  Jackson Katz demonstrates that men’s behavior is socially constructed and learned through the interviews in the beginning of the video. It is clear that men all have the same definition of what it means to be a ‘man’. On top of the one-on-one interviews, he also shows statistics that prove as evidence of men feeling the need to live up to this tough exterior. It showed that between men and women, men were often the violent offenders. He also shows examples of how media and companies put on peer pressure on to men to be a certain way. 4. How does a key social institution, the Media, shape how we perceive men in American society?  In the video, Katz uses the media and the men of large corporations like Disney who cause gender stereotypes. In general, I think the media has portrayed the male gender as dominant, tough, and ‘strong’. The media uses magazines, ads, TV commercials, and any other outlet exposed to the public. I believe even when it comes to the news, men who violate the law are more in the mainstream than women.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Challenges Children Face in Divorced Families Essay

The death of a parent is less devastating to a child than a divorce. (Billota, 2012) There are long term and short effects that children face during and post divorce. There are six stations in which most couples face while going through these trials. About fifty percent of married couples will get a divorced before the children are of the age of 18. (Scott, 2010) Since divorce is so complex I will discuss some guidelines on how to ease the pain on children growing up or going through a household in which parents are getting a divorce. The death of a parent is less devastating to a child than a divorce. (Billota, 2012) After carefully analyzing this statistic I can say that I agree with the statistical fact. Speaking from personal experience, I feel like I am a creditable source and can relate to this topic of Challenges Children Faced in Divorced Families. Another statistic is that half of American children, under the age of eighteen will witness the actual break of their parents and half of those children will also witness the failure of the second marriage. The percentage of children being raised without their fathers in America is an astonishing forty percent. Children who experienced a divorce are more like to be at a higher risk for illness or injury such as asthma, headaches, and speech defects. (Billota, 2012) These are just a few of the statistical facts that children of divorce face. My name is Mayra and I am a statistic. I come from a divorced family; I witnessed the breakup of my parents and both of their second marriages. I am a divorcee, my son is a recipient of speech therapy and I was raised without a father. Divorce is a death of a commitment and a promise, but unlike a death of a parent, it isn’t someone we mourn and then slowly move forward from, it is a death that we have to deal with on a day to day basis. This is why the death of a parent is less devastating to a child than of a divorce. (Billota, 2012) â€Å"I, Mayra, take thee, Erick, to be my lawful wedded husband. To have and to hold from this day forward; for better or for worse; in sickness and in health; to love, to honor, obey, and cherish; from this day forward; till death do us part.† These are common broken vows. Why do people marry? According to our text, people marry for love and commitment as well to avoid the inevitable feeling of loneliness. (Scott, 2010) A steady companionship is ideal in society and although that isn’t the sole reason for marriage, it is one of the major reason people pursue marriage. Other reasons people get married besides personal fulfillment, can be for financial reasons, wealth, power and reproductive reasons. (Scott, 2010) In a perfect world everyone would live a fairytale marriage and live a happily ever after. In today’s society divorce is what happens when couples don’t work out. Some might refer to it as a trend; do to the simple fact that in the most recent years the numbers of divorce rates have increased to a little more than 1 million a year. (Scott, 2010) Factors that affect marital stability are, but not refined just to, age of first marriage, education of individuals, income, religion, parental divorce, cohabitation, and presence of children. (Scott, 2010) There are different stages in the process of divorce. Starting from when the conflict between the married couple begins and last a period of time; to the initiation of legal paperwork; to the spouses’ adaption to the dissolution of the troubled marriage. (Scott, 2010) As mentioned above some factors that affect marital stability include the presence of children. Marriages can last longer if children are indeed present do to the fact that parents don’t want their children to grow up in a broken home; it can be imposed values or the sense of guilt. In cases when the marriage cannot be salvaged and there are children involved in the dissolution; it is best that the parents take time to careful initiate the process while providing stability and structure. (Scott, 2010; Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) The six stations that married couples face as they divorce are: emotional, legal economic, coparental, community and psychic divorce. During the emotional station, either one or both partners begin to question their marriage based on the viability or quality. One or both partners may withdraw emotionally, withhold feelings and may withhold affection. Intentionally hurting one another may occur because of the frustration, anger or resentment that they might feel towards each other or one another. Separation during this stage is common and it is common to do so after an argument or fight. (Scott, 2010) It is crucial that from this stage parents recognize that in order to avoid their children from feeling the stress and the pain of a divorce, that they provide structure, love and reassurance to the children. One thing to remember is not to belittle one another or argue in front of the children. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) During my emotional station, we both detached from one another and intentionally hurt one another by verbally insulting each other. An argument that occurred while placing an order at a restaurant was all it took to know that the person that I married knew nothing about me after 6 years of marriage. I took into account that I had a son and I didn’t want him to grow up without both parents, but I figured it wasn’t a healthy marriage and I couldn’t hide my pain, it showed and affected my relationship with my son. I left within a couple of days of that argument. Second station: The legal divorce officially ends the matrimony and gives both parties the right to remarry or see other people as they please. This is a deliberating period of time and usually takes months before it’s finalized. Divorce can be expensive and result in either spousal support, alimony, and or child support, which leads’ us to our third station: economic divorce. Economic divorce involves the economical settlements of tangible items that may have been accrued during the marriage. It includes homes, cars, bank accounts, investments and any future earnings. This station is not applicable to every marriage being that not every marriage last as long and may or may have not accrued much. Stations two and three may also affect the challenges the children face during these periods. Children may face the challenge of not seeing either parent for long periods of time and have to incorporate a new schedule and routine. It is common for a father to become less involv ed with their children during this period because of their perceptions of possible sources of support. Fathers may feel that by providing child support they no longer have resume their ties to fatherly duties. During the economic station, children may also face economical changes. It is common for the mother to have custody and usually in household incomes the father has a higher income. If they live with the mother the child may not live the life as if both parents combined their income causing stress and emotional pain to a child. (Scott, 2010) Being involved with the children after divorce is a great way to reassure them that they have both parents’ regardless of the separation. And even through the economical changes, providing the children with a safe secure home, establishing a routine, and providing structure will ease the challenges the children face. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) Children react to divorce by having feeling of denial, anger, sadness, rejection, despair and grief and loneliness. Station 4 the coparental divorce involves the responsibilities the parents have to the children that include, custody, visitation, and financial and legal aspects of it. (Scott, 2010) Engaging in custody battle adds an abundant amount of stress to all parties, especially the children. Ensuring that the children don’t get caught in between battle is important. Parents should make sure they don’t have the children chose sides and always remember it should be in the best interest of the child. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) The community divorce, station five, involves the changes of the social relationships which includes relatives and friends that are associated with a former spouse. This can act as a loss to either family member. Having to detach from relatives, such as in-laws, mutual friends, family members of the former spouse, puts a toll on everyone because people are left to feel like they have to choose sides. Children face the challenges of losing friends and the luxury of having the sense of family. (Scott, 2010) In my personal situation, mutual friends were forced to take sides because my former spouse couldn’t handle the thought of sharing anything that had to do with me. Former family members feel like they can’t invite to family parties out of respect to my ex, but it affects my son because, he misses his father’s family. Situations like these are best handled by presenting as a united front. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) The psychic divorce, sixth station, has no time frame and involves defining yourself as single person rather than a couple. During this process, people mourn their failed marriage, use the time to discover their self, distance themselves from the divorce and accept the breakup. The station of difficulty and time varies from individual to individual. (Scott, 2010) Children absorb so much through divorce and being a strong parent, who reassures them that they are not at fault or cause for the divorce helps ease the grief caused by the divorce. Helping children express emotions and committing to listen to the children without getting defensive reassures the unconditional love that you have for them. Adjusting to new circumstances is difficult for children, they can look at divorce as a loss and by supporting their feelings helps create that trust that may have been lost with the divorce. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) Divorce on children has a short term and long term effect. The short term experiences that are most commonly shared among children whose parents divorced are: rejection, anger, denial, sadness, despair, and grief. Children tend to feel guilty and blame themselves for the divorce and fantasize about parents reuniting. The stresses of this may cause health problems, both physical and psychological. Health problems may be caused by the lack of health insurance following the divorce, which creates a health problematic for children. The stress of the divorce may lead to depression and leave the children feeling incompetent. This depends on the guidance of the parents and the adjustment process of the child. Long term effects may not be as clear and consistent. Long term effects are long-lasting and interfere with the process of social-emotional developmental. (Scott, 2010) Children of divorced families are four more times likely to have problems with their peers. It is also said that boys who come from divorced parents tend to be more aggressive toward their peers than those who don’t come from a broken home. (Billota, 2012) The adult children of divorced parents show much more anxiety and have a higher rate of having failing interpersonal relationships. The more common long term effect of children of divorced parents is low self-esteem, depression and school and behavior problems. These are the negative effects and challenges children face. (Scott, 2010) Support for marriage and families can be found online, within the community and schools. Some schools provide affordable counseling services. Parents who decide to divorce are encouraged to learn about the effects children face during divorce. It may help reduce risks children might face during and after the process. There is a high risk for fathers to be less involved with their children after divorce, so it is encouraged that families promote activities that involve parents and children so that it help them stay connected (Scott, 2010) Important guidelines to help children cope are, telling the truth, saying â€Å"I love you†, addressing the changes, avoid blaming anyone, listening and acknowledging feelings, having patience, providing reassurance, and providing a structured routine. When in doubt, it is encouraged to seek professional help. (Block, Kemp, & Smith, 2012) By providing all the above, helps give the children a sense a security and perhaps the hope that everything is for the better. It would be nice if children from divorced families could break the vicious cycle of divorce. I can say that for two yours I put a lot effort into making my marriage work. I encourage everyone to take premarital counseling and post-marital counseling. I believe to have a strong successful marriage there needs to be a solid foundation of communication, trust and respect. Love is an emotion and in most cases conditional, the only unconditional love that I ever known is for my son. I can’t say that for everyone. If I would have known that I was going to cause so much emotional pain getting a divorce, never in a million years would have given up after two years. The death of a parent is less devastating to a child than a divorce. (Billota, 2012) Works Cited Billota, L. (2012, March 23). 18 Shocking Statistics About Children and Divorce. Retrieved from Marriage Success Secrets website: Block, J., Kemp, G., & Smith, M. (2012, March 21). Children and Divorce. Retrieved from Scott, M. A. (2010). Marriages and Families. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Free Essays on Rime Of The Ancient Mariner

Summary Three young men are walking together to a wedding, when one of them is detained by a grizzled old sailor. The young Wedding-Guest angrily demands that the Mariner let go of him, and the Mariner obeys. But the young man is transfixed by the ancient Mariner's "glittering eye" and can do nothing but sit on a stone and listen to his strange tale. The Mariner says that he sailed on a ship out of his native harbor"below the kirk, below the hill, / Below the lighthouse top"and into a sunny and cheerful sea. Hearing bassoon music drifting from the direction of the wedding, the Wedding-Guest imagines that the bride has entered the hall, but he is still helpless to tear himself from the Mariner's story. The Mariner recalls that the voyage quickly darkened, as a giant storm rose up in the sea and chased the ship southward. Quickly, the ship came to a frigid land "of mist and snow," where "ice, mast-high, came floating by"; the ship was hemmed inside this maze of ice. But then the sai! lors encountered an Albatross, a great sea bird. As it flew around the ship, the ice cracked and split, and a wind from the south propelled the ship out of the frigid regions, into a foggy stretch of water. The Albatross followed behind it, a symbol of good luck to the sailors. A pained look crosses the Mariner's face, and the Wedding-Guest asks him, "Why look'st thou so?" The Mariner confesses that he shot and killed the Albatross with his crossbow. At first, the other sailors were furious with the Mariner for having killed the bird that made the breezes blow. But when the fog lifted soon afterward, the sailors decided that the bird had actually brought not the breezes but the fog; they now congratulated the Mariner on his deed. The wind pushed the ship into a silent sea where the sailors were quickly stranded; the winds died down, and the ship was "As idle as a painted ship / Upon a painted ocean." The ocean thickened, and the men had no water to dr... Free Essays on Rime Of The Ancient Mariner Free Essays on Rime Of The Ancient Mariner Summary Three young men are walking together to a wedding, when one of them is detained by a grizzled old sailor. The young Wedding-Guest angrily demands that the Mariner let go of him, and the Mariner obeys. But the young man is transfixed by the ancient Mariner's "glittering eye" and can do nothing but sit on a stone and listen to his strange tale. The Mariner says that he sailed on a ship out of his native harbor"below the kirk, below the hill, / Below the lighthouse top"and into a sunny and cheerful sea. Hearing bassoon music drifting from the direction of the wedding, the Wedding-Guest imagines that the bride has entered the hall, but he is still helpless to tear himself from the Mariner's story. The Mariner recalls that the voyage quickly darkened, as a giant storm rose up in the sea and chased the ship southward. Quickly, the ship came to a frigid land "of mist and snow," where "ice, mast-high, came floating by"; the ship was hemmed inside this maze of ice. But then the sai! lors encountered an Albatross, a great sea bird. As it flew around the ship, the ice cracked and split, and a wind from the south propelled the ship out of the frigid regions, into a foggy stretch of water. The Albatross followed behind it, a symbol of good luck to the sailors. A pained look crosses the Mariner's face, and the Wedding-Guest asks him, "Why look'st thou so?" The Mariner confesses that he shot and killed the Albatross with his crossbow. At first, the other sailors were furious with the Mariner for having killed the bird that made the breezes blow. But when the fog lifted soon afterward, the sailors decided that the bird had actually brought not the breezes but the fog; they now congratulated the Mariner on his deed. The wind pushed the ship into a silent sea where the sailors were quickly stranded; the winds died down, and the ship was "As idle as a painted ship / Upon a painted ocean." The ocean thickened, and the men had no water to dr...

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

A Genetics Definition of Homologous Chromosomes

A Genetics Definition of Homologous Chromosomes Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs (one from each parent) that are similar in length, gene position, and centromere location. The position of the genes on each homologous chromosome is the same. However, the genes may contain different alleles. Chromosomes are important molecules, as they contain DNA and the genetic instructions for the direction of all cell activity. They also carry genes that determine individual traits. Homologous Chromosomes Example A human karyotype shows the complete set of human chromosomes. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. Each chromosome pair represents a set of homologous chromosomes. One chromosome in each pair is donated from the mother and the other from the father during sexual reproduction. In a karyotype, there are 22 pairs of autosomes (non-sex chromosomes) and one pair of sex chromosomes. In males, the X and Y sex chromosomes are homologs. In females, both X chromosomes are homologs. Mitosis The purpose of mitosis (nuclear division) and cell division is to replicate cells for repair and growth. Before mitosis begins, chromosomes must be replicated to ensure that each cell retains the correct number of chromosomes after cell division. Homologous chromosomes replicate forming sister chromatids (identical copies of a replicated chromosome that are attached). After replication, the single-stranded DNA becomes double-stranded and has the familiar X shape. As the cell progresses through the stages of mitosis, sister chromatids are eventually separated by spindle fibers and divided between two daughter cells. Each separated chromatid is considered a full single-stranded chromosome. Interphase: Homologous chromosomes replicate forming sister chromatidsProphase: Sister chromatids move toward the center of the cellMetaphase: Sister chromatids align along the metaphase plate at the cells centerAnaphase: Sister chromatids are separated and pulled toward opposite cell polesTelophase: Chromosomes are separated into distinct nuclei After the cytoplasm is divided during cytokinesis, two new daughter cells are formed with the same number of chromosomes in each cell. Mitosis preserves the homologous chromosome number. Meiosis Meiosis is the mechanism for gamete formation and involves a two-stage division process. Prior to meiosis, homologous chromosomes replicate forming sister chromatids. In prophase I, sister chromatids pair up forming what is called a tetrad. While in close proximity, homologous chromosomes sometimes exchange sections of DNA. This is known as genetic recombination. Homologous chromosomes separate during the first meiotic division and sister chromatids separate during the second division. At the end of meiosis, four daughter cells are produced. Each cell is haploid and contains half the number of chromosomes as the original cell. Each chromosome has the appropriate number of genes, however, the alleles for the genes are different. The swapping of genes during homologous chromosome recombination produces genetic variation in organisms that reproduce sexually. Upon fertilization, haploid gametes become a diploid organism. Nondisjunction and Mutations Occasionally, problems arise in cell division that cause cells to divide improperly. Failure of chromosomes to separate correctly in mitosis or meiosis is called nondisjunction. Should nondisjunction occur in the first meiotic division, homologous chromosomes remain paired. This results in two daughter cells with an extra set of chromosomes and two daughter cells with no chromosomes. Nondisjunction may also occur in meiosis II when sister chromatids fail to separate prior to cell division. Fertilization of these gametes produces individuals with either too many or not enough chromosomes. Nondisjunction is often fatal or may produce chromosomal anomalies resulting in birth defects. In trisomy nondisjunction, cells contain an extra chromosome. In humans, this means that there are 47 total chromosomes instead of 46. Trisomy is seen in Down syndrome where chromosome 21 has an additional or partial chromosome. Nondisjunction may also produce abnormalities in sex chromosomes. Monosomy is a type of nondisjunction in which only one chromosome is present. Females with Turner syndrome have only one X sex chromosome. Males with XYY syndrome have an extra Y sex chromosome. Nondisjunction in sex chromosomes typically has less severe consequences than nondisjunction in autosomal chromosomes (non-sex chromosomes). Chromosome mutations can impact both homologous chromosomes and non-homologous chromosomes. A translocation mutation is a type of mutation in which a piece of one chromosome breaks off and is joined to another chromosome. This type of mutation occurs more often between non-homologous chromosomes and can be reciprocal (gene exchange between two chromosomes) or non-reciprocal (only one chromosome receives a new gene segment).

Sunday, November 3, 2019

CAPM, ICAPM and Multifactor Models Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

CAPM, ICAPM and Multifactor Models - Essay Example Later on research was conducted and the creators of CAPM theory related diversifiable which are unsystematic risks and non-diversifiable which are systematic risks for all the securities in the portfolio. Some management individuals conceived that CAPM is not genuine as it dominates participating management and investment study. Fabozzi and Markowitz (2002) state â€Å"even though the idea is not true it does not mean that the constructs introduced by the theory are not important. Constructs introduced in the development of theory include the notion of a market portfolio, systematic risk, diversifiable risks and beta.† CAPM helps to comprehend the fundamental risk-return trade-offs implied in all cases of financial determinations (Gitman, 2006). The international capital asset pricing model (ICAPM) takes into account countries as stock lists in world market is founded on capital asset pricing model. The difference in the methodical risks of countries results in the differences in excess returns. Previous experiential reports of international CAPM models did not find much proof to back up the model. The bond returns mirror alterations in the cost of bonds as well as coupons. Actually domestic regular risk can be branched out by investing internationally without paying off price in terms of lesser returns. With this viewpoint it is clear that the results got by ICAPM are so helpful to spread portfolio for international portfolio investors. If cross-sectional disparity in anticipated returns can be explicated by the ICAPM, the outcomes can be applied to assess capital market integration. The beginning point of ICAPM is that the construction of the theory of international finance for the most part reflects that of domestic financial theory (Adler and Dumas, 1983). Actually ICAPM normally takes into account the world market portfolio as an alternative to domestic market portfolio. Solnik (1974) also suggests that composite models

Friday, November 1, 2019

United States Health Care Reform and Accountable Care Organizations Research Paper

United States Health Care Reform and Accountable Care Organizations - Research Paper Example The U.S. health sector is very inefficient in terms of cost levels and in order to bring this down this paper discusses the implementation of Affordable Care Organizations and whether or whether not they will be able to remedy this situation. If indeed, ACOs benefit the health sector over the years as predicted by studies the U.S health sector will be able to lower costs and increase the quality of their health care. The United States Health Sector has gone through many reforms over the years and has recently been subjected to the Affordable Care Act which calls for Accountable Care Organizations within the sector to increase its efficiency of functioning. With the ACA up and running, the health sector seems to have a much better chance of improvement, however this wasn’t always so. Body President Harry Truman initiated the idea of a socialized healthcare program in the United States in the period 1945-48 but was put down by the American Medical Association (AMA). However, Medicare was finally made operational in 1965 under President Johnson’s socialist regime. (Oliver, Lee and Lipton, 2004). From the end of the 1960s to the end of the 1990s prescription drug coverage was never an independent factor that fell under the responsibility if Medicare. It was only until the end of the Clinton regime that this issue came to light. Towards the end of 2003, President Bush added the coverage of prescription drugs under Medicare which was one of many other changes to the organization. The implementation of these changes will increase tax burden on the population by roughly in the bracket of $400-550 billion in the future. The population had a 60/40 negative/positive stance about the new reforms respectively. (Oliver, Lee and Lipton, 2004). There was a gigantic increase in the price of medical drugs around this time and Medicare’s expenditure which used to amount to $700 million in 1992 was costing Medicare around $6.5 billion in 2001. Obviously, their costing system was hugely defected. (Oliver, Lee and Lipton, 2004). The explosive increase in the price of prescription drugs also allowed greater power to pharmaceutical companies who realized that on this scale the stakes were larger and politics came into play; since the drugs were too costly the federal government would have to sponsor their coverage. (Oliver, Lee and Lipton, 2004). Another issue that has remaine d persistent where American healthcare is discussed is that of the racial partiality with respect to adequate healthcare provision. In 1993, it was estimated that the life expectancy of African Americans was roughly 7 years less than that of white Americans. This difference was attributed to mortality rates and the differences in income distribution. But the truth according to research was that black Americans were not allowed as much health care as their white counterparts. (Bhopal, 1998). There are also language barriers to effective health care provision in the United States. A research paper describing this situation tells of a situation of this boy called Raul who spoke little English, his mother who spoke no English and was describing his condition to a doctor and the doctor who spoke very little Spanish. His mother was telling the doctor that her son had been dizzy the day before; the doctor took it to mean that Raul had been looking a little yellow. When confirmed from Raul, the doctor was told that his mother was saying that Raul had been

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

What is Mifeprex Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

What is Mifeprex - Essay Example Mifeprex is a synthetic steroid with antiglucocortid and antiprogestorne outcomes (Jacob 186). Progesterone is a female hormone responsible for preparing the uterus to receive and sustain a fertilized egg. It is also crucial in sustaining the pregnancy. Mifeprex works by blocking progesterone’s activities at the progesterone receptors. It stimulates the uterus to contract, thus preventing the formation of pregnancy (Ogbru and Marks). Besides that, the drug can also be used as a medication for type 2 diabetes adjunct in Cushing’s syndrome. People with Cushing syndrome produce a lot of cortisol that is responsible for high sugar levels in the blood. Mifeprex minimizes the levels of blood glucose in thse people by blocking the activity of cortisol (Jacob 186). The drug is among the list of essential drugs of the World Health Organization. According to Crosse 4(7), mifeprex is only prescribed for the termination of intrauterine pregnancy through the 49th day of pregnancy. People should avoid taking Mifeprex if: it has been more that 7 weeks since the most recent menstrual period started; you have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place; you have problems of bleeding; you have taken steroid medications; you are allergic to prostaglandins, mifeprex, or any other medicine that contains misoprotosol; you have chronic adrenal failure; the healthcare provider has informed you that you the pregnancy has formed outside the uterus; for the following two visits you cannot return (Danco Laboratories 2) Mifeprex has various side effects. Even though Jacob argues, â€Å"There is no medical evidence that Mifepristone presents a special risk of infection,† (182), possible side effects of using the drug has been reported. It can cause birth defects in the unborn baby if the treatment procedure does not result in the full termination of the pregnancy. Other side effects consist of the following:

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Strategic Position Of The Google Corporation Commerce Essay

Strategic Position Of The Google Corporation Commerce Essay This individual case study analyzes the strategic position of the Google corporation in its market and references some of the competitive forces as described by Michael Porter (1980). The analyses will also include some of the axioms from Sun Tzu and the art of business by Mark McNeilly (1996). Bernard Girards book on The Google Way (2009) was used primarily for this case study. Investor relation websites along with internet articles supplemented the review of Google and to present financial numbers for market comparison. Google is arguably one of the most innovative and interesting companies today in their industry. Their beginning can be seen as the classic Silicon Valley company formation. Two friends from Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, had a vision to make an impact on the information technology industry. To be more specific their mission was to organize the worlds information and make it universally accessible and useful  [1]  (Girard, 2009). But Google is anything but the typical company in reference to their strategies for going public and how the organization operates. The mid to late 1990s the computing technology world was racing towards advancements and the founders of Google took advantage of this. Prior to this date, computer technology was more expensive for less in relation to storage, components, processing, and performance. Computers and the internet were still limited to a narrow group of people which included universities, government and researchers, along with only a small population fortunate enough to afford this technology. The mid 1990s experienced more rapid advancement in information technology including the World Wide Web, faster processors, upgraded memory, accelerated graphics cards, more storage, and user friendly operating systems (Windows). That affect made personal computing a household name. A large factor in this was price per technology. As Bernard Girard (2009) points out, Asia was emerging as technology manufacturers at the same time advancements in computer components were maturing, yielding lower prices for computing technology. The phenomenon allowed the Google founders to capitalize on the market conditions which were favorable to them as it applied to building the computing power they needed to accomplish what they set out to achieve. Not only were they becoming the new entrant  [2]  into the information technology industry, but the competitive force principle that Michael Porter (1980) describes that gave Google favor in the market from their start was the bargaining power of suppliers  [3]  (Porter, 1980). To create their massive database and sophisticated algorithms based on artificial intelligence (AI), they would need talented programming people as well as the highest technological computer components which there were plenty of, limiting the bargaining power of the suppliers. There was also no shortage of venture capitalists at that time willing to invest in the next Silicon Valley start up. According to in a 2007 study of the top one hundred venture capital firms in the United States, found that approximately half of them were located in California (Girard, 2009). This made it easier for Google to obtain the capital necessary for their ideas from the financial perspective. Public Offering When it came time to open Google up to Wall Street in 2004, founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin along with new their new partner Eric Schmidt made a tactical move to improve their companys position  [4]  at its initial public offering (IPO). Analyzing the methods of an IPO, they decided to use the OpenIPO in lieu of the standard public offering. As Girard (2009) explains, the OpenIPO resembles the Dutch auction where the seller sets a bid price and the number of shares, and allows the investors to bid what they think is the fair price. In the end, all winning bids will pay the exact same price regardless if some of the bids were higher, which is in contrast of the typical Wall Street IPO which allows investment bankers to manipulate the system in their favor. The OpenIPO strategy gave Google the credibility, confidence, and favorable public opinion from the start. Market and Financial Position Google was not formed yet when the World Wide Web took off in the mid 1990s. The internet search market was shared by Magellan, InfoSeek, AltaVista, Yahoo, Inktomi and Northern Light (Web Search Engine, n.d.). Although Google formed in 1998, its search engine (and main component) started to gain market share in the year 2000  [5]  through its unique technology and basic home page design. In 2002 Google was ahead of both Yahoo and MSN by a half of a percent to a percent in the market (29.2%6). By May 2003, Google had fifty-five percent (55.2%  [6]  ) of the global search engine market share with Yahoo at a distance second (21.7%6). As recent as March 2011, Googles claim on the search engine market is nearly two-thirds even though Microsoft has been gaining as of lately mostly due to its Bing search engine and Yahoo which is included in the Microsoft statistics from their partnering (Parr, 2011). Googles financial position is very strong. In terms of revenue, the company grew from eighty-six million in 2001 to over twenty-nine billion dollars reported (unaudited) in 2010  [7]  (Google investor relations, n.d.). Google has managed to increase their revenues every year within that time and the majority of that comes through advertising. For example in 2010, twenty-eight of the twenty-nine billion dollars were logged in under total advertising revenues7. Many dot com (.com) companies did not last in the market and faded after the early 2000s, and if they did, struggled thereafter. Google however has proven to be a profitable company. In 2001 their net income was just under seven million dollars while earning four cents per share outstanding  [8]  (Google investor relations, n.d.). They have since grown to a net income of eight and a half billion dollars and impressive earnings per share of twenty-six dollars8 (Google investor relations, n.d.). Though competition in the technology world is fierce, Googles financial figures still far outweigh its two closest competitors in the information technology web services industry, Yahoo and Chinas Baidu. To date Googles total revenues are greater than Yahoo and Baidu by twenty-three and twenty-eight billion dollars respectively  [9]  . Research and Development A large factor in the success of Google comes from its commitment to research and development. Google spent over three billion dollars ($3.7 bil) towards research and development8 (Google investor relations, n.d.) . Compare that to Yahoo, according to their investor relations site, who report just over a billion dollars in 2010 for product development (up from only two hundred million in 2009), and Baidu who only allocated just over seven hundred million towards research and development9. One of Googles policies in human resource management is not only to acquire who they think is of great innovative talent, but to allow them some space to be creative. This is what is known as the twenty percent rule (Girard, 2009). Google is so committed to research that they allow their people to have twenty percent of their time to work on research and not be devoted full time on specific projects. This is not a typical policy in most organizations. The Sun Tzu and the art of business axiom that applies to Googles theory towards innovation is Deception and Foreknowledge, Maximizing the Power of Market Information.  [10]  (McNeilly, 1996). The principle refers to staying connected to what your competition is involved in to be able to better respond to what your market is dictating at the time. If ignorant of the conditions of mountains, forests, dangerous defiles, swamps and marshes he cannot conduct the march of an army.  [11]  (McNeilly, 1996) This is especially important in information technology because it is more dynamic than most other industries. As Bernard Girard (2009) points out what sets Google apart from the typical company when it comes to the attitude towards development, is that it stays connected to the world around them for ideas that can be placed into motion. One of the policies pertaining to this is the building of networks in their Silicon Valley area to listen to what other companies are doing and what may be the next start up new entrant on the horizon (Girard, 2009). They also encourage their employees to stay connected to their alma maters and other university students to stay in touch on new ideas in the market. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths Google is a large corporation whose strength relies on its current technology and innovation. They have dynamic leadership in founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who have the vision and the means to put it forward as they have demonstrated from its inception in 1998. An obvious strength is their current financial position. They are in good position monetarily to invest in new technologies and combat legalities and new services. As stated in the previous section, most of their revenues are generated through advertising. What set Google apart from the competition when it launched its search engine was the model they incorporated. It is known as the cost-per-click strategy which was a system that allowed advertisers to pay what they thought their ads were worth which mathematically was translated in search rankings (Girard, 2009). Google gave advertisers a visual way of tracking the effectiveness of their marketing dollars. This was a breakthrough because before Googles method, it was difficult for companies to track their marketing efforts whether it was on the web, or even in other media outlets such as print and television. In an indirect way, Google became a substitute product or service  [12]  , referring to Porters force driving industry competition, in relation to advertising venues besides the internet. Google offered companies a more fair way to judge what they thought they should price their advertisements as well as the ability to view their effectiveness. For marketers, this information can be priceless and a better opportunity than blind ads. Another one of Googles strength is its algorithm that runs its page ranking search engine. It is different from the typical methods of other engines because its objective is to rank pages not only by its word content but also uses artificial intelligence for relevance. Their search engine algorithm approach can be viewed as avoiding strength and attacking weakness  [13]  . Instead of following methods and theories of the status quo web engines, they developed a unique system that has revolutionized internet searching today. Weakness It is hard to fathom weakness in a company of this magnitude, but no organization is without them. The obvious is the possible loss of key members which can include anyone from the executive management team to its software engineers. The information technology market is very competitive because it relies heavily on scientific and mathematical talent that is not easy to come by if you measure it against all disciplines overall. Key production employees may opt to leave to other organizations for better offers or start up their own technology company. Googles enormous growth could possibly be a weakness. With that in mind other companies that are competing to regain a part of that large share that Google currently owns. An example is Microsofts Bing Maps feature birdseye view which is direct competition with Google Earth for usage as it refers to the threat of new products and services from competitors. They will also have to combat new companies that will enter the information technology arena looking to capitalize on the rewards Google has discovered. One such company that has developed a new computational knowledge search based on natural language and new algorithms is Wolfram|Alpha, the very company that produced the software Mathematica (About Wolfram|Alpha, 2011). Such a company could prove to be the direct competition for Googles search engine market because of its ability to match the sophistication of the algorithms that drive both organizations search engines. Technological Position Google puts stock in innovation. As mentioned, they encourage collaboration and creativity. This is evident from the technology they are able to house. According to author Bernard Girard (2009), Googles data house, which is built on a very powerful software platform, may consist of approximately four hundred and fifty thousand (450,000) microcomputers. There in house intranet known as Moma, is extremely powerful and acts as their enterprise wide application which reveals numerous statistics about their operations as well as an open view of all of their research and development. Googles technological arsenal is stocked well enough to compete against rival companies. Advancements and Emerging Markets Some of Googles advancements in the market include their web browser Chrome, which is one of the fastest, the popular Android mobile operating system, and their Gmail service. The Gmail service has emerged as of the more popular email systems today that offer an extraordinary amount of free space. They accomplished this through by leveraging their cloud technology which is also emerging today. They also plan to offer almost all personal and workstation computing applications through the cloud technology which would directly compete against Microsoft. One example is the current research and development of the Google Chrome OS (operating system) which is intended to run exclusively on computers specifically manufactured from Googles partners (Google Chrome OS, n.d.). Google has even partnered with the company GeoEye to launch a satellite for higher quality imagery for their Google Earth service in 2008 (Google. n.d.). They have also entered the renewable-energy market with their subsidiary, Google Energy, and invested in a wind project in the state of North Dakota (Google. n.d.). Another market that Google is experimenting with advantageously is the broadband service. They have an agreement to install the Google fiber optic system which will offer broadband at ultra high speeds upward towards one hundred times faster than normal broadband according to Google. They are also beta testing a free home wireless service under the name Google TiSP. International Policy One of the negatives that always need to be dealt with in reference to large corporations is its position in the international community. Antitrust laws can be used to limit the power one company may have. Googles already has had a negative experience abroad in relation to China. According to contributor Steven Levy (2011), Google had a rough relationship with China due to the countrys censorship policies which were contrary to Googles views and style. Googles service was also different over there because it had to adapt to the possibility of turning over data to the Chinese government, something they wanted to avoid. As Levy (2011) explains it got so bad that even Googles policy for their employees to take twenty percent of their time towards independent ventures was not well received in Chinas culture. This is an example of not only are there different and possible unique laws a corporation may have to abide by, but also a different lifestyle and culture may hinder how a company ma y run its operations. Evaluation Answering the question about how Google can improve market share is a difficult one. Google is basically competing against itself in its own industry. This is why they expand in all directions to gain share and enter other markets. Their market share can improve greatly with the success of their ultra high speed broadband service experiment. Ultra high speed connection for everyone, even in outlying rural areas is the future. Google has the technology, resources and ability to deliver this. Another possible market Google would have the capability to enter is the smart appliance industry. This emerging technology uses programmable features in appliances that would allow control for household energy usage. The industry is still new, but a company such as Google could make an impact because of its software programming talent, internet dominance, and its new broadband technology. Googles management is very progressive. According to Girard (2009) they took liberties to install a collaborative environment to be able to connect its employees to each other as well as to the outside world (universities, other companies) to better react to the changes in demand from customers and emerging technologies. For example users were becoming more frustrated with internet explorer in the late 1990 and early 2000s. Google responded with the Chrome web browser to take market share. When email services were cheap on storage, they answered with Gmail. Now the public has been demanding more speed for the rich applications across the internet and Google is responding with an ultra high speed service. A couple of laws that Google needs to stay on top of are privacy laws and antitrust laws. One law in particular, The Patriot Act, may impact Google in a negative way because there are laws that all companies have to abide by, which may mean handing over of information when requested. This could have effect on usage and market share due to how the public may perceive the giant corporation. Antitrust laws can affect Google because of its growth and size. Google has a history of buying companies to acquire different technologies which included KeyHole, DoubleClick, Aardvark, and YouTube to name a few (Google. n.d.). Laws that prohibit monopolies may impede Googles quest to grow further in certain markets. Conclusion One would have to ask the question, will Google be able to sustain its own growth? Information technology is a broad field that covers many aspects of the industry. Googles corporate strategy judging by the amount of services it offers and the ones it is trying to breakthrough makes it an aggressive company that likes to stay on top of innovation and market share. Growing too fast can be an achilles heel at some point, because a company can end up spreading itself too far while ignoring advancements and changes it might need for its main services.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Erics Wacky World of Words :: Free Essays Online

Eric's Wacky World of Words I don't work with small children with any frequency, nor have I been related to any for some years now. I am focusing instead on my own linguistic development, which is in fact rather complicated. I was born in the United States, but raised speaking French. French was my first language, and by all accounts I was a precociously fluent speaker. I learned English more or less in parallel because I needed it to talk to my father, but I used French more often in conversing with my mother. Back in the States for pre-school, I suddenly made the decision, according to my mother, that speaking French wasn't "normal" and so I wouldn't do it anymore. I would listen to her speak in French, but I spoke only in English, and she soon gave up. I became one more monolingual American child, and so discouraged my mother that by the time my brother was born, when I was 5, she didn't even bother to teach him French. I unfortunately remember nothing of my brother's language learning process, however. On a trip to France when I was 7, I by and large picked the language back up, making a conscientious effort to do so. I found, however, that while I had a fairly good intuitive grasp (being able to simply "hear" whether or not something is correct), I had lost the proper usage of such details as pronouns and less common verb conjugations. This, to me, seems like it might be consistent with the order in which languages are learned, function morphemes coming towards the end of the process: having had less time to practice and internalize these particular features of the language, they were the first to be forgotten when I quit speaking. Sadly, I can report little further progress in French. My practice has been brief and infrequent, and while I am able to communicate fairly effectively, I can only read moderately well and am almost entirely unable to write. However, in 9th grade, I began taking Spanish courses, and have done so more or less constantly for the past 4 years. Consistent with the view that adult language learning is very different (much more based in explicit memorization) than that of children, I am much more able to explicitly cite and explain rules of grammar, and to list memorized vocabulary and other words such as pronouns, than I am in French.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Adventures of Tom Sawyer Essay

I had often been given a stern warning never to have anything to do with Jim. But whenever Dad repeated that warning, I was never as concerned with the implications of going against the rules, as with the consequences of abiding by them. Besides, I was not so foolish as to be caught crossing the borders because I knew only too well that Dad always meant what he said – or said what he meant – and that no single word from his mouth was meant for the trash can. In other words, I never knew him to beat around the bush as they say; he always hit the snake on the head, whenever he encountered one, that is. â€Å"We’re doing this for your own good,† he always said to us – my brother and I – before ordering us to make sure the house and the compound are as clean as a cow’s nose and cancelling our weekends’ time out with the other neighborhood kids or to the beach. â€Å"Ask Sawyer. † We all loved reading Mark Twain’s â€Å"Adventures of Tom Sawyer† but while my brother and I admired Sawyer, our parents saw the fruits of his mischief as a warning to us. Dad was the one who always spoke, while Mom silently nodded to every word as if Dad was reading the words directly from her mind. Mom never looked directly at us during such sessions. Instead, she looked at Dad all the while only darting a glance now and then from the corner of her eyes. She might have thought her motherliness would get in the way of justice if she ever saw eye-to-eye with either of her sons during those neither-too-long-nor-too-short lecture sessions, which I hated, probably even more than the punishment itself because as soon as they ended, Mom would get the courage to look us in the face and say â€Å"later† with a smile and Dad would wish us â€Å"a great weekend† as they drove off, towards fun. One such day, a Saturday, we discovered that we could take revenge for the punishment. The birds were not singing as joyfully as they used to and the clouds in the sky formed strange animal shapes. We needed something to lift our spirits, so we did the work hurriedly and sneaked out to join our friends from the neighborhood in one of my friend’s house, whose parents had gone on a weekend-long trip. It was party time! No parental guidance. No â€Å"don’t do this†, no â€Å"don’t do that†. Unrestricted freedom! Freedom like we wanted it! Many of our friends brought cans of beer, cigarettes and cigars stolen from their parents’ houses. We played hard rock and danced like little possessed witches and wizards, smoking like steam-engine trains and burning our guts with hard liquor, as if they did not belong to us. Some of my friends and my brother only had a few sips before they saw black and lay down, sprawled like chicken in the sun, while the rest of us, who had four stomachs, continued imbibing like real rockers. It was not long, however, before my eyes created Suzie’s identical twin and the can in my hand saw an opportunity to free itself as the stuff in my stomach erupted like a volcano. The last time I had a glimpse of Suzie, she was hanging in the air, and then someone cut the lights off! I woke up to a strange-looking ceiling – a snow-white ceiling. The smell was strange, too. So was the silence. But the strangest thing was that I felt like I was trapped in a borrowed body. I tried to move my arms and legs, but they were too weak to move. My head felt as heavy as sea sand, too heavy to lift. Someone softly touched my left hand. I turned my head slowly to face Mom and Dad and looked at the clock behind them. It read â€Å"10 0’clock†. Why was I in a hospital bed at ten in the morning? Immediately, my mind raced back. I remembered Suzie and her identical twin sister. No. Suzie did not have any sister, let alone a twin sister. I must have poisoned myself with hard liquor! I had ignored the implications of breaking the rules just to show Suzie I was a real man. I was not sorry for being too foolish to be caught, though. I was sorry because not only had I broke my parents’ rules, but also their hearts. Works Cited Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. California: University of California Press. 2002. Adventures Of Tom Sawyer Essay I will never forget the time I spent with Tom Sawyer, Huck Finn and Joe Harper on Jackson’s Island. We have always wanted to become pirates. Now that we have found the exact opportunity – Tom being scolded by Aunt Polly and Joe Harper having been whipped by his mother for tasting sour cream – we decided that it is now time to pursue our dream to become real pirates. In that way, we will be able to live a life of freedom and fame, and the whole town will hear about our names. The people who mistreated us will also feel sorry for what they had done. Our rendezvous is Jackson’s Island, which is three miles below the town of St. Petersburg. We met there at midnight. That became the start of our lives as pirates of the sea. Personally, I loved the idea of running away from home. I never had to go to school anymore. I didn’t need to follow rules anymore. And as Tom promised often, all we will need to do is to steal, kill and get rich. So when midnight came, the four of us met at Jackson’s Island. Each of us came with something stolen. Tom brought stolen ham, Joe had a one sided bacon and Huck had a skillet and some tobacco leaves. I brought stolen matches from my mom’s drawer. I figured that if we would stay long in the Island, we would need fire for our daily needs. Tom applauded me for bringing some matches. In those days, matches are not commonly used in St. Petersburg. Very few people had them. We found a raft about a hundred yards away. So we decided to have some fun with it and as usual, Tom was the captain. He commanded our pirate ship as we all pretended to be real pirates, using terms we have heard from sailors as well as lines from books we have read. We decided to settle in a virgin forest about two hundred yards above the head of the island. There, we spread our belongings and also built a huge bonfire. We cooked our ham, bacon and corn pone by roasting them in the fire. We ate and ate until we were so full. There was nothing like it. If the other boys in the village saw us that way, they would greatly envy us without a doubt. There was nothing like a pirate’s life. After eating, we lay down on the grass and talked for a while. Tom started to tell us stories about pirates – how extravagant they are, and how rich and famous. We started to ask him many questions about becoming a pirate. He simply told us that all we had to do was steal belongings and kill other people. In the midst of the conversation, Huck Finn began to smoke tobacco! I instantly followed him with that activity and smoked tobacco as well. Tom and Joe simply looked silently at us in amazement. For a long time now, they had wanted to learn how to smoke, but never had the opportunity. Only Huck and I could smoke. After much talking, we all fell asleep one by one. That was our first night as â€Å"pirates†. Tom was the first to wake up in the morning. The first thing we did was to strip ourselves off our clothes and bathe in the sea. After that, we got ready for breakfast. Joe began to slice bacon and would have cooked it, but Tom and Huck asked him to wait. I was the one who caught a couple of sun perch and catfish! We instantly cooked those fishes along with the bacon and they tasted so good. Then after eating, we lay down on the sand for a long time. Sadness started to creep in, but nobody dared to speak about it. Nobody wants to be accused of being a chicken heart. I think Tom was starting to feel homesick too, but he didn’t want to show his feelings. Our growing homesickness was interrupted when we saw a ferry boat afar off, shooting cannon over the water. This is a sign that somebody in the village got drowned. Shooting cannons over the water made drowned people come up to the top. For a while we wondered who got drowned, and then Tom suddenly had a brilliant thought. We are the ones who got drowned! The entire village was searching for us. Our parents missed us, and the other boys surely heard about us. The girls we admired are now talking about us too! We spent the rest of the entire day swimming, talking, eating and exploring the island. When night came, everyone went to sleep. When I woke up in the morning, Joe and Huck were still sleeping. Tom, however, was nowhere to be found. I looked at the spot where he slept and found a note. I opened the note and it read like this: â€Å"If I don’t come back by breakfast time, all my things are yours.. † Upon reading this, I woke Joe and Huck and showed them the note. We waited for Tom for about an hour but he never came. Huck supposed that Tom felt homesick and went back to Aunt Polly’s house. However, Joe defended Tom and said that he knew his friend would never do such a disgrace. Tom, according to Joe, knew the code of pirates and he is too proud to quit and go home just like that. I told Joe to start cooking breakfast and if Tom never returned by the time we ate breakfast, all his things will be ours. But just before we started to eat, Tom appeared dramatically and entered the camp. He had some news for us. He had â€Å"spied† on St. Petersburg and discovered that the whole town was talking about us – the lost pirates. If our bodies were not found until Saturday, our funeral will be pronounced that very Sunday. We instantly felt like heroes. Then suddenly I had a brilliant idea. What if we could make a comeback on the day of our funeral? Tom and the other pirates liked it very much. Tom slept until noon and when afternoon came, we started to plan our appearance at our funeral on Sunday. That Sunday, while the entire town mourned for us and as the minister preached his eulogy for the â€Å"dead boys†, we were hiding in an unused gallery behind the church as we listened to everything that was happening. Suddenly, we made our appearance to the crowd. Needless to say, everybody welcomed us dramatically. Our loved ones cried with joy. We were the talk of the town for several months and I will never ever forget it. It was the best day of our lives. Part 2: The Commentary The pirate boys led by Tom Sawyer built a community that they have entirely created amongst themselves. It is a community apart from the regular life they have known at St. Petersburg. We can safely say that Tom, Joe and Huck built their pirate community based on their childhood imagination. As young people in a simple town, where modern industrialized America has not yet fully penetrated, these three boys have an inclination towards idealism. Their idea of a perfect life is total freedom. Thus, they chose to pretend as pirates and imitate the pirate’s code of conduct in order to experience the life that they have always dreamed about. To them, escaping to Jackson’s Island is more of an escape from reality. Although they have romantic idealisms as pirates in a free world, the reality remains that in the town of St. Petersburg, they are children and they are not as powerful as they suppose themselves to be. Tom Sawyer is just a kid who can get whipped by Aunt Polly any time of day. He is a student who needs to go to school and study his lessons. He is part of society. So as we have stated, going to Jackson’s Island is an escape from reality. The boys thought that they can build a community on their own – apart from society, authority and responsibility. This thought is evident in Tom’s opening thoughts in Chapter 13: â€Å"Tom’s mind was made up now. He was gloomy and desperate. He was a forsaken, friendless boy, he said; nobody loved him; when they found out what they had driven him to, perhaps they would be sorry†¦Yes, they had forced him to it at last: he would lead a life of crime. There was no choice. † (Twain, 1876). In the community that the boys built, each one played an important role. Tom was the leader because he was the one who provided the vision and insight about the life of a pirate. So in essence, he was providing direction for all of them. Almost everything they did during their getaway in the island was a product of Tom Sawyer’s imagination – based on what he read from books and his own thoughts and romantic dreams. Joe Harper, meanwhile was more of a follower. He also executes Tom’s orders. It is evident that Joe admired Tom for everything that he was. Joe once said: â€Å"No, Tom’s true-blue, Huck, and he’ll come back. He won’t desert. He knows that would be a disgrace to a pirate, and Tom’s too proud for that sort of thing. He’s up to something or other. Now I wonder what? † (Twain, 1876) Huck, meanwhile, is a symbol of the free life that Tom and Joe have always longed for. Huck didn’t need to go to school. He is a waif, a vagabond and he is not part of society. The other boys envied Huck because he can smoke tobacco while most boys in St. Petersburg – even Tom and Joe – cannot do that act. Although Tom was the leader, we can say that Huck is the role model for the entire community they have built for themselves. If, for Tom and Joe, the island getaway was an escape from reality, it was a normal day for Huck. He was probably used to going to different places all by himself. The simple community of Huck Finn, Joe Harper and Tom Sawyer was similar to adult communities in that they have a single driving force – the desire to live a life of freedom. If we look at history, almost all communities started with that single driving force. In any given community, there should be a leader, a follower and a symbol of inspiration. As these traits are respectively found in each of our characters, we may say that Tom, Huck and Joe are a perfect embodiment of American idealism. Although their deeds were shown in boyish manner, they represent a greater dimension which reflects the reality of adult life. As the saying goes, â€Å"Men are simply boys who grew up†. Works Cited: Twain, Mark (1993). The Adventures Of Tom Sawyer [electronic version]. New York: Project Gutenberg Ebooks. (Original work published 1876)